The Divine Trinity
by Father Richard M. Hogan & Father John M. LeVoir
from the Catechetical Teachings of Pope John Paul II
Notâre Bene -
Venerable Pope John Paul II has developed a new Theological Synthesis for Presenting the Catholic Faith. This
Synthesis is called Phenomenology. Using this Synthesis, beginning about 1985, Pope John Paul II began a Series of Weekly Catechetical
Addresses to cover the Central Tenets of Catholicism, following the Articles of the Nicene Creed. Fathers Hogan and LeVoir have compiled
the Pope's Teachings into Book format entitled 'Faith for Today', and below is their Presentation on the Holy Trinity.
God: Three (3) Persons in One (1) Nature
There is no Attribute, no Mystery, no Perfection in God that is more
Incomprehensible to us than the Three (3) Divine Persons
in the One (1) Divine Unity. Even living-with
God for all Eternity (∞)
in Heaven, we will never Fully Understand this Mystery. The
Intellect, however, Enlightened by
Faith, can 'in-a-certain-way' Grasp and Explain the Meaning of the Dogma. Thus, it can
bring close to Man the Mystery of the Inmost-Life of the Triune
God. Therefore, it is possible for us to Examine this Mystery in
some detail. The Purpose of such Examination is not to Comprehend the Trinity - an Impossible
Task. Rather, the Purpose is to Appreciate more-and-more the Glory and
Wonder of God. Such an Examination might be compared to the Jeweler's Study of a Beautiful
Diamond. He looks at it from Different Angles, not to Comprehend it or even to Understand it Fully, but rather to
Appreciate its Beauty.
However, at First Glance, the Study of the Trinity seems doomed-to
Failure. God is not a Diamond that can be held in One's Hand. How is it possible to Gaze
on Him, to Examine Him from Different-Angles? Of course, that
Question has already been Answered. If Man is made in the Image of God, then
God is, in a certain-sense, "in the Image and Likeness" of Man. Clearly, it
should be Possible for us to Examine Ourselves and, Guided by the Gospel, come to some Understanding
of God. This Procedure was followed at the Beginning of the Discussion on
God's Nature. It should be possible to Follow the Same Procedure in Gazing on God as a
Trinity (3) of Persons in the One (1)
In regard to the Trinity, there are Four (4)
Distinct 'Angles' or 'Viewpoints' to consider:
First, there is the Mystery of the
Processions. The Question asked is: Why are there Three (3) Persons?
The Second Consideration involves the 'Relationship' among the
Three (3) Persons. The Question asked is:
What distinguishes each Person from the other Two (2)?
The Third Mystery involves the Activity of the
Trinity within itself. The Question is: What do the Three (3) Persons
do among Themselves?
While the First Three (3) 'Viewpoints' consider the Trinity
in itself or, better, within itself, the Fourth Area of Examination Studies the
Trinity as it Acts Outside of Itself (Ad Extra); i.e., as
it Acts towards the Created Order, especially towards Human Beings. In this Fourth Area, the
Question asked is: Does One (1) Divine Person or do all Three (3) Divine Persons Act toward Human Beings?
The Two (2) Processions
At the very beginning of this Chapter, the Creation of Human Persons in God's Own
Image was mentioned. Each of us is Human Person with the Powers of Thinking and Choosing, i.e., with a
Mind and a Will. However, as Persons, we not only are Capable of Independent Thought and
Free Choice, we are also 'Aware' of the Thoughts we think and the Choices we make. Thus, when we are Appreciating a Wonder of Nature
like the Grand Canyon, we 'Know' the Beauty we are seeing and we also 'Know' that we have Chosen to look. We have an 'Awareness' of our
own Acts. This 'Self-Awareness' or 'Consciousness' pertains to Personhood. '
Consciousness' contains the Acts that we Knowingly and Freely Choose. Of course, 'Consciousness'
Mirrors all these Acts - those expressed in-and-through the Body, and those that remain-internal. Our '
Consciousness' is a kind-of Inner Image that we have of the Acts we Knowingly and Freely Choose. By viewing this Inner Image, we
|'Consciousness' - The Intuitive 'Awareness' by which we Recognize something as
Cognitionally present in the Mind.
Since God is, in a certain sense, a Reflection of Man, it is evident that
God is a Personal Being Who must have the Personal Faculties
that we have. Clearly, He must have a 'Consciousness' of
His own Acts as each Human Person has a 'Consciousness' of his Acts. In
other words, there is no doubt that God is aware of His Acts of
Thinking and Choosing, and that His 'Consciousness' contains
His Acts of Thinking and Choosing. God's '
Consciousness' is a kind of Inner Image that He has of all
His Acts. Thus, through His 'Consciousness'
God knows Himself.
In a certain sense, God knows Himself before
He knows anything else. His Act of Knowing
Himself is logically prior-to knowing anything else. In this, God somewhat resembles
Human Beings. Before we learn about the Created World, we learn about ourselves. For example, as a child develops and grows, there are
the wonderful discoveries of Hands, Fingers, Feet, etc. As Human Persons, we come to know ourselves before we know the World
around us. What is true for us is, in this case, especially true of God. All Reality depends upon
God. As the Creator, by knowing
Himself, He knew the World and everything in it before it was created. As
Being itself, He possesses all the Powers and Potentialities
that are in Creation. Thus, God knew Himself, and in knowing
Himself, He knew Creation. Clearly,
His First Act of knowing is the Act of knowing Himself.
There was nothing else to know!
Since God is Perfect,
He knows Himself Perfectly. In other words, His
'Consciousness' contains an Identical Image of Himself. This Image would
not be Identical to God Himself if it only existed in the Mind of God, and not
in Reality. God "Is",
He exists. If His 'Consciousness' contains an Identical Image
of Himself, it too must exist. This Image does exist in Reality and is the
Second Person of the Blessed
Trinity, God the Son.
God the Son is Begotten from the
Father's 'Consciousness' of His Act
of knowing Himself. The Second
Person mirrors the Father. He is the Identical Image
of the Father. He is the Father's
Origin of the Son
God the Father
possesses Two (2) Internal Divine
Act of Intellect
(Begotten, not made,
The Son of God,
Second Person of the Holy Trinity
Act of Will
|"Generation" is the
production of one living-being from another, both having the same nature.
A word, in a language, signifies a Concept or an Idea. In fact, it is almost impossible for anyone to think of anything
without, at the same time, thinking of the word for that thing (or, at least, a mental picture of it). In
God's Act of knowing Himself, He
Generates a Self-Concept. This Self-Concept is signified by a Word. Since the Self-Concept of the
Father is Perfect, it encompasses all Concepts and, therefore,
all Words. Clearly, the Divine Self-Concept is the 'Word', par
excellence. Saint John confirms this 'Insight' when he names Christ the
Word of God (in Greek, Logos). Pope John Paul compared the
Procession of the Son from the
Father to the Self-Knowledge of Human Beings: "By Analogy with the Cognitive Process of the
Human Mind, whereby Man, in knowing himself, produces an Image of himself, an Idea, a Concept, that-is a 'Conceived Idea', which from the
Latin 'Verbum' (word) is frequently called the Interior Word, we Dare to think of the Generation of the Son or the Eternal Concept and
Interior Word of God. God in knowing Himself Begets the Word, the Son, Who is God, just as the Father".
When the Father Sees the
Son, Who is the Identical Image of the Father, and the
Son Sees the Father Who is the
Son's Identical Likeness, They Choose one another, i.e.,
They Love one another. The '
Consciousness' of the Father and of the Son contains the
'Inner-Reflection' and 'Image' of Their Act of Love. This 'Image'
of the Love between the Father and the
Son is Identical to Their Love. Since the Love of the
Father and the Son is Real, the Identical Image of that
Love in the 'Consciousness' of the
Father and the Son must actually exist. The Holy Spirit
is the Love of the Father and
the Son. The Holy Spirit Proceeds
(Spirates, a type of Procession) from the
Father's and the Son's Act of Love.
Origin of the Son and the Holy Spirit
Father possesses Two (2)
Internal Divine Processions
Act of Intellect
(Begotten, not made,
The Son of God,
Second Person of the Holy Trinity
||Act of Will
(not made, not created,
The Holy Spirit,
Third Person of the Holy Trinity
"Generation" is the production of one living-being from another, both having
the same nature.
"Spiration" is a type of Procession, from the noun
"spirit" which means "breath";
"proceeds from the Divine Will, inflamed, as it were, with love" CCC.
An "Internal Divine Procession," refers to the
origin of One (1) Divine Person
from Another through the communication of the One (1)
Divine Essence. There are Two (2)
Internal Divine Processions: the Generation of the
Son and the Spiration of the
Pope John Paul offers a description of the Procession of the
Holy Spirit: "The Father, Who Begets, loves the Son Who is Begotten,
and the Son loves the Father with a love which is Identical with that of the Father . . . . At the same time, the Father and the Son are
not only United by that Mutual Love as two Persons Infinitely Perfect, but Their Mutual-Gratification, Their Reciprocal-Love, Proceeds
in Them and from Them as a Person, the Father and the Son 'Spirate' the Spirit-of-Love consubstantial with Them". The
Processions in the Trinity have their Source in
God's Acts of 'Knowing' and 'Willing'.
The Divine Processions are not
Time-Related. As mentioned above, God exists outside-of-time. The
Processions within the Trinity exist outside-of-time.
They always were, are, and
will be. There never was a time when the Son did not exist.
There never was a time when the Holy Spirit did not exist. If there were a time when
the Son and the Holy Spirit did not exist, neither would be
Although it is a fundamental-tenet of the Christian Faith that there are Three (3)
Persons in One (1) God, this
teaching in no-way Compromises or Diminishes the other equally
firm-teaching that there is only One (1) God. But, there
seems to be a Difficulty. Since there are Three (3)
Persons in One (1) God, then
there must be 'Distinctions' among the Persons. Since there are
'Distinctions', then it would seem that God is not a Perfect,
Simple Unity (1). He would not be
One (1) God, but Three (3). However, this is
impossible. The Problem can be stated in Two (2) Ways. How can
there be Three (3), if there is only One(1)? Or, how can there
be One (1) if there are Three (3)? The
Difficulty can be approached from either Vantage Point.
One might think that a possible Explanation of the Problem lies in the
'Distinction' between 'Person' and 'Nature'. 'Nature' signifies What
someone is and 'Person' signifies Who someone is. Thus, for example, when we speak of 'Human Nature',
we indicate What makes a Man a Man, with his Essential Components and his Properties. On the other
hand, a 'Human Person' is he or she who exists as a Concrete Human Being, as an Individual (1)
possessing Humanity, that is, 'Human Nature'. All Human Beings share the same Humanity, the same 'Human Nature'. In a sense,
they are all One (1) because they are all Human, i.e., they have a common 'Human Nature'. Thus, there
is a Oneness (1) among all Human Persons, even though every Human Person is a unique-individual. In
God, there is One (1) Divine
Nature, but Three (3) Persons. If it were possible
to establish that God had One (1)
Divine Nature, as all Men share One (1) Human Nature, the Unity
(1) and Trinity (3) of God could be explained in the
same way as the Unity (1) of Human Nature among the Billions of
Quantity of Persons (Who)
Three (3) Divine Persons
One (1) Divine Nature
Billions (109) of
One (1) Human Nature
However, this 'Distinction' is not sufficient in itself because
God's Nature is not exactly like Human Nature. Human Nature exists Separately and
'Distinctly' in each and every Human Person. In God, the
Divine Nature does not exist Separately and 'Distinctly' in
each of the Divine Persons because the Divine Nature is
Perfect, Unified (1) and Simple. There are not
Three (3) Individualized, Separate, Concrete Repetitions of the
Divine Nature in each Divine Person, as there are an
Incalculable Number of Individualized, Separate, Concrete Repetitions of Human Nature, in each Human Person. Thus, the
Problem that began this discussion remains: How can there be Three
(3) in One(1)? Or, how can there be One (1) in
The reply, which our Reason 'stammers', is based
on the Concept of 'Relation'. The Three (3)
Divine Persons are distinguished among Themselves solely by the
'Relations' which They have with one another. In everything but
Their 'Relationships', the Three (3)
Divine Persons are Identical. Our Reason
"stammers", to use Pope John Paul's phrase, because the
'Relations' among the Three (3) Divine
Persons are unlike any 'Relations' that Human Persons experience.
The Three (3) Divine Persons are Identical, in everything but Their 'Relationships'
|Holy Spirit's Majesty
|Holy Spirit's Mind
|Holy Spirit's Knowledge
|Holy Spirit's Intellect
|Holy Spirit's Will
|Holy Spirit's Essence
|Holy Spirit's Holiness
|Holy Spirit's Love
|Holy Spirit's Power
|Holy Spirit's Wisdom
|Holy Spirit's Divinity
|Holy Spirit's Substance
|Holy Spirit's Being
|Holy Spirit's Nature
|Holy Spirit's Relationship
For Example, 'Sonship' is a 'Relationship'. It is a Vital
'Relationship' only when at least Two (2) Human Persons exist:
a living Son and at least One (1) living Parent. After both Parents have
Died, the Son, at least in a certain sense, ceases to be a Son. Nevertheless, the Human Being who was a Son does not
cease to be a Human Person, just because Death has ended the 'Relationship'.
All Human Beings are Persons because God created them as Persons. In other words, a Human
'Relationship' does not constitute a Human Person, as the Divine
'Relationships' constitute the Three (3) Divine
Persons in the Trinity. Human 'Relationships' do not
make Human Beings Who they are, but the Divine
'Relationships' do make the Divine Persons
Who They are.
Divine Relationships make
Divine Persons Who They Are
Human Relationship ≠ Human Person
Divine Relationship = Divine Person
In God, then, the Divine
'Relationships' define the Three (3) Divine
Persons. The Father is 'Fatherhood' itself. 'Fatherhood' defines
Who He is. The Son is 'Sonship' itself, existing in
its own right. 'Sonship' defines Who the Son is. The
Holy Spirit is Love itself. Love
is a 'Relationship' between at least Two (2) Persons.
He is Love, existing in its own right.
Love defines Who the Holy Spirit is. In other words,
the 'Relations' in God are "Subsisting". These
'Relations' distinguish the Three (3)
Persons in God from one another. The Father is
distinct from the Son precisely because He is 'Fatherhood' and
not 'Sonship'. The Son is distinct from the Father because
He is 'Sonship' and not 'Fatherhood'. The Holy Spirit is
distinct from the Father and the Son because
He is Love and not 'Fatherhood' or 'Sonship'.
Analogy of Relationships
Unity of a Man
Unity of a Woman
|Husband, Brother, Son, etc.
Wife, Sister, Daughter, etc.
|Unity of God
Holy Spirit (3)
Since there is a Distinction of the Divine Persons on the basis of the
Divine 'Relationships', how is it possible to maintain the
Unity (1) of God? A solution is suggested by Analogy with Human
'Relationships'. A Man might be Husband, Brother, Son, Uncle, Great-Uncle, Grandfather, and even
Great-Grandfather. A Woman might be Wife, Mother, Sister, Daughter, Aunt, Great-Aunt, Grandmother, and even Great-Grandmother.
But the Man is only One(1) Individual and the Woman is only
One (1) Individual. Both have a Multitude of 'Relationships'
but both remain One (1) in themselves. If Many Human
'Relationships' can exist within the Unity (1) of an Individual Human
Being, can that not also be posited of God? Of course it can. (It should be noted that the above
Analogy does not completely explain the Mystery of the
Trinity. No Human Analogy could ever explain the Trinity).
God is Three (3) Persons, i.e.,
Three (3) Subsisting 'Relations', in One
(1), Perfect, and Simple Godhead (Nature).
The Trinity as a Communion of Persons
The Three (3) Divine Persons are perfectly
United (1) with one another. Christ said,
"All that the Father has is Mine". In another Passage
Christ indicates the Union between Himself and the Holy
Spirit when He says that the Holy Spirit
"will take what is Mine and declare it to you". The Holy
Spirit has what is Christ's, and what is Christ's is
the Father's. Consequently, there is a Total-Union among the Three
(3) Persons of the Trinity.
This Union within the Holy Trinity exists through the Personal Choice of each
Divine Person to give Himself totally to the others. This Total
Self-Gift of each Person within the Trinity is founded on the
Perfect Knowledge that each Person has of the other
Two (2). This is what Divine Love is: a Personal-Choice, a
Will-Act, made by each Divine Person based on Knowledge of the
Truth, to surrender Himself totally and completely to the other
Two (2) Persons. The self-donation of each
Divine Person to the others, Unites all Three (3) in a Communion
of Persons. In effect, among the Persons of the Trinity,
there is an Attitude, a Choice, to Act as One(1). The Divine
Communion of Persons is a Total-Union. It is a Reciprocal Compenetration or Mutual Indwelling. As
Pope John Paul II states: "The Council of Florence expressed this Trinitarian Truth in the following
words: 'Through this Unity . . . the Father is completely in the Son, completely in the Holy Spirit; the Son is completely in the Father,
completely in the Holy Spirit; the Holy Spirit is completely in the Father, completely in the Son'".
Human Family ≈ Trinity
The Human Family, as a Loving Union of Human Persons existing in 'Relationships' with one another
and basing its life on the Truth, should reveal the Mystery of the
Trinity to us, although only partially and very inadequately. Since God
is in a certain sense in the Image of Man, it should not be surprising that Human Family Life expresses, again very inadequately and only
partially, some aspects of the Triune God.
The Trinity and the Created Order
The Love within the Trinity is Perfect and
Complete. However, God Chose to Act 'Outside' of Himself in
'Creation', 'Revelation', and 'Sanctification':
We attribute 'Creation' to the Father, 'Revelation' to the Son,
and 'Sanctification' to the Holy Spirit. The Almighty Power of God
(associated with the Father Who is Power) is most clearly present in 'Creation', the bringing of
things into Existence from nothing.
Since 'Revelation' is the unveiling God's Self-Knowledge, i.e.,
Wisdom, it is associated more with the Son Who is
'Sanctification', a sharing of God's own life, is only accomplished by
God's loving self-gift of His own life, i.e., of Himself,
to Human Beings. God's self-gift of Love is associated more
with the Holy Spirit Who is Love.
Nevertheless, the Power of God (associated with the
Father) is shown in God's Acts of 'Revelation' and 'Sanctification'. The
Wisdom (associated with the Son) is present in 'Creation' and
in 'Sanctification'. The Love of God (associated with the
Holy Spirit) is present in 'Creation' and 'Revelation'. As Pope John Paul II writes:
"Although the Work of Creation is attributed especially to God the Father - this we profess in the Creeds
of the Faith: 'I believe in God the Father Almighty, Creator of Heaven and Earth' - it is also a Truth of Faith that the Father, the Son,
and the Holy Spirit are the Unique and Indivisible Principle of Creation". The 'Revelation' of
God and the 'Sanctification' of Man are, just as Creation, the Work of the entire
Trinity - Father, Son, and
God reveals in 'Creation' His Power (attributed
to the Father). As stated by Pope John Paul, "The Creator's
Omnipotence is shown . . . in calling Creatures into Existence from nothingness". God
the Creator powerfully brings things into Existence out of nothing. In the Twentieth Century, the
Sciences have offered us incredible feats of Power and even Majesty. The launch of the Saturn V Rocket that sent the first men to the
Moon comes to mind, as do the truly wondrous miracles wrought daily in our hospitals. But even in this Twentieth Century, it is not
possible to bring things into existence out of nothing. Further, 'Creation' is not only an Act of
God's Power, it also reveals God's Wisdom. When we see the work of an artist, we see a
reflection of the Divine Artist's knowledge. However, in God, all
knowledge is included in His own self-knowledge, i.e., in His Wisdom,
because His self-knowledge is Perfect.
God's 'Revelation' of His Wisdom through His
'Creative-Act' is most obvious in the case of Man, who is made in God's own Image and Likeness. When
anyone sees another Person, he sees an Image of God, i.e., he sees
Wisdom (Divine self-knowledge). In addition, 'Creation' is an Act of
God's Love. According to Pope John Paul: "To create means to give (especially to give
existence). And he who gives, loves". In Creation, the Trinity - Power, Wisdom, and
Love - Acts as One (1) Principle.
The Work of 'Revelation', the Unveiling of God's Wisdom, is accomplished most completely through
Christ, God the Son
(the Wisdom of God) made Man. In and through the
Incarnation and the Redemption,
God's Wisdom is 'Revealed'. As the Second Vatican Council taught,
Christ is "both the Mediator and the sum-total of Revelation"
(Dei Verbum, Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation). Christ Himself said in response to
Philip, who asked to see the Father, "Have I been with you so
long, and yet you do not know Me Philip? He who has seen Me has seen the Father; how can you say, 'Show us the Father?'"
God's Wisdom is 'Revealed' in every Act of Christ, but
most especially in Christ's Passion,
Death, and Resurrection. In the Paschal Mystery,
Christ 'Revealed' God as One Who
Loves. Thus, in 'Revealing' God as Love,
Christ 'Revealed' the Divine self-knowledge, i.e.,
Wisdom. Further, Christ's life is not only the most-complete
Manifestation of God's Wisdom, it is also an Act of Divine Power.
The Power of God can be seen in the Union of the Two (2) Natures
in the One (1) Divine Person
(Hypostatic Union). The Power of God is also obviously
present in the Miracles of Christ and in the
Resurrection. But the awesome Power of God can most
clearly be seen in the Effect of the Pascal Mystery, as Pope John Paul explains
"Death is conquered with Death". In addition, in Christ's
'Revelation' of God's Wisdom, we see an Act of God's Love.
The Incarnation shows us the self-gift (Love) of
God. God "emptied Himself, taking
the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men" - Philippians 2:7. He
emptied Himself, i.e., He gave
Himself; "And he who gives, loves", as explained by Pope John Paul.
God's stupendous Love is also Marvelously Present on the
Cross: "Greater Love has no Man than this, that a Man lay down his
life for his friends" - John 15:13. The Incarnation and the
Redemption were the Work of the Trinity.
In the Incarnation and the Redemption,
the Trinity - Power, Wisdom, and Love - Acts as One (1) Principle.
God carries on the Work of 'Sanctification' by giving Human Beings
His very own life (Grace). This self-gift of
God is clearly identified with the Holy Spirit. Just as it is fitting for the
Son, Who is the Wisdom of
God, to 'Reveal' the Truths about
God to us, so it is fitting for the Holy Spirit, Who
is Love, to 'Sanctify' us by giving us God's life.
Love unites Persons. In the Blessed Trinity, the
Holy Spirit (Love) unites Father
and Son. In the World, the Holy Spirit, through
His Gift of Divine Love, i.e., Divine
Life of Grace, unites Human Beings in the Union of all those who share God's Grace.
Further, when God shares His life (
Grace) with Human Beings, it is not only an Act of His Love, it is also an Act of
His Power. In giving Himself to us,
God gives us new life. Just as God's Gift of Human Life in
His Creative Act is an Act of Power, the giving of His Divine Life is also an Act of Power.
God's caring for those He has
Blessed with His Grace is also an Act of Power.
He not only gives His Divine Life,
He Cares and Nurtures that Divine Life, in all those who share it. The awesome number of
People who share God's own life indicate the Scope and Magnitude of
His Omnipotence exercised through the Gift of His own
life. In addition, God's 'Sanctifying' Work 'Reveals' His Wisdom.
All those who share God's life have "put on Christ" -
Galatians 3:27. They are other Christs because they live God's
own life. Christ, as the Wisdom of
God, 'Revealed' Divine Wisdom. Other Christs 'Reveal'
God's Wisdom in a way similar to Christ. In the Work of
'Sanctification', the Trinity - Power, Wisdom, and Love - Acts as One
It is the teaching of the Church that all Exterior Activities
(Ad Extra) of God are common to the
Three (3) Divine Persons. Any Act of
God on the Created World is an Act of the Three (3)
Divine Persons acting as a Single (1)
Principle. As Saint Thomas explains, "to produce any effect in creatures is common to the
whole Trinity, by reason of the oneness of their Nature; since where there is one Nature there must be one Power and one Operation".
It is no wonder that before the Mystery of the One (1),
Triune (3) God, we stand almost speechless in Awe, able only to
mutter, "Glory to God in the Highest" - The 'Gloria'.
Audio Clips on the Trinity
by Father Richard Hogan, PhD,
and Fulbright Scholar
|The above Four Audio Clips were produced by EWTN Radio and each is approximately 26 minutes long.
To begin this Series, Father Hogan logically develops the Attributes of God necessary for understanding the Trinity, and once
the Framework is Developed, begins to Unfold the various Mysteries of the Trinity. Understanding the Trinity is a Difficult,
Slow, Repetitive Process you will have to Fight your way through, but "No Guts, no Glory", "No Pain, no Gain", "No Cross,
no Crown". As a hopeful 'Bride of Christ', do you want to spend an Eternity married to a Stranger you know nothing about?
Understanding the Trinity Reveals God's Infinite Love for us.