angel_01.gif (2832 bytes) The Seven Sacraments angel_02.gif (2330 bytes)

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The Sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation and Penance -
by WEYDEN, Rogier van der - from Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp

 

The Sacraments bring Divine Life or Grace. Christ's Reason for taking upon Himself a Human Nature, was to Pay for Sin, by Death on the Cross, and to bring us a Higher Life: "I have come so that they may have Life, and have it more Abundantly" (John 10:10). But, it may be said, that Man already has Life. Indeed he does; he has a Biological, Physiological Life. He once had a Higher Divine Life, which he Lost. Christ came to bring that Life back to Man. This Higher Life, which is Divine, distinct from the Human, is called Grace, because it is 'Gratis' or a Free Gift of God.

Over and above Human Life, then, there is the 'Divine Christ-Life'. The Seven (7) Conditions of leading a Personal Christ-Life, are the following:

(1) We must be Spiritually Born to it, and that is the Sacrament of Baptism

(2) We must Nourish the Divine Life in the Soul, which is the Sacrament of the Eucharist

(3) We must grow to Spiritual Maturity and assume Full Responsibilities as Members of the Spiritual Army of the Church, which is the Sacrament of Confirmation

(4) We must Heal the Wounds of Sin, which is the Sacrament of Penance

(5) We must Drive-out the Traces of the Diseases of Sin, which is the Sacrament of Anointing

(6) We must Live under the Spiritual Government of the Church, which is Holy Orders

(7) We must Prolong and Propagate the Kingdom of God on Earth, which is Matrimony

 

Archbishop Fulton J. Sheen Ph.D., D.D., LL.D., Litt.D.

 

The Seven Sacraments

THE SACRAMENT OF BAPTISM angel_02.gif (2330 bytes)

BAPTISM is the Sacrament that Frees Man from Original Sin and from Personal Guilt, that makes him a Member of Christ and His Church. It is thus the Door-to a New and Supernatural Life.

This Sacrament has been Undisputed within the Church, since the beginning of Christian Tradition. It has never been Rejected by any Heresy intending to remain on a Christian basis. Doubts could arise only about the Ways and Means of Administering it, and on its Effects and Way of Operation. These things are therefore in Essence, what Church Documents about Baptism deal with.

angel_01.gif (2832 bytes) The Church Teaches:

Baptism is a True Sacrament, Instituted by Christ. It is Administered by Washing with Natural Water, and at the same time, Invoking the Most Holy Trinity. Anybody, even an Unbeliever or a Heretic, can validly Administer Baptism. Since it confers Grace by the 'Signs' being properly carried out, children can and should be Baptized, even while still Infants. Baptism is necessary for Salvation. Baptism effects the Remission of Original Sin and Actual Sins, and of all Punishment due to Sin; it confers Sanctifying Grace, Membership in Christ and in the Church, and the Obligation to Obey the Church's Laws, and gives an Indelible Character.

Note: from Pope Innocent III AD1201. The Baptism of young children is not profitless. As Circumcision made Men, Members of the People of Israel, so Baptism gives them entry to the Kingdom of Heaven ......

 

THE SACRAMENT OF CONFIRMATION angel_02.gif (2330 bytes)

The Sacrament of Confirmation, 'Completes' the Sacrament of Baptism. If Baptism is the Sacrament of Re-birth to a New and Supernatural Life, Confirmation is the Sacrament of Maturity and Coming of Age. The Real Confession of Christ consist in this 'that the Whole Man submits himself to Truth, in the Judgment of his Understanding, in the Submission of his Will, and in the Consecration-of his Whole Power of Love' . . . To do this, Poor-spirited Man is only able when he has been Confirmed-by God's Grace.

This Confirmation in the Power of the Holy Spirit, leading to a firm Profession of Faith, has always been the Particular Effect which Catholic Tradition has ascribed-to the Sacrament. It is 'Effect' which 'Complements' and 'Completes' that of Baptism.

angel_01.gif (2832 bytes) The Church Teaches:

Confirmation is a True Sacrament, Instituted by Christ, and different from Baptism. It is Administered by Laying-on of Hands, and Anointing with Chrism, accompanied-by Prayer. The Chrism is Blessed by the Bishop, and the Bishop administers the Sacrament. All Baptized Persons can and should be Confirmed. The Effect of the Sacrament of Confirmation is to give Strength in Faith, and for the Confession of Faith, and to Impress an Indelible Character.

 

THE SACRAMENT OF PENANCE angel_02.gif (2330 bytes)

As to Penance. If the Church is to fulfill, in its Entirely, Her Task of Saving Mankind, She needs the Power to Forgive Sins. It is a Power essentially different from Her Mission to Preach the Gospel, and Baptize. In Baptism indeed, all Sins and the Punishment due to them, are Remitted. Baptism is the First Justification. But the First Justification is also the First Entry into the Realm of the Supernatural, which works entirely by God's Grace, and which asks of the Person Baptized, no more than that he turn-away from Sin, and turn in Faith to Christ.

Penance is something different. A Baptized Person who Sins again, Sins against God to Whom, since his Baptism in the Name of the Most Holy Trinity, he belongs. He also betrays the Church, of which he is now a Member. Thus, the New Atonement assumes the Character of a Legal Trial, with Accusation, Sentence and Satisfaction.

The Practice of Penance has varied considerably, down the Centuries. In very early days, Satisfaction, usually in the form of Public Penance, was very much to the Fore. Re-acceptance into the Church Community, normally took place only after completion-of the Penance Imposed. More and more, however, Penance has withdrawn-from the Public Domain, and today, only the Private Administration of the Sacrament is still in use.

The development-of the System of Confession, shows that Misunderstanding easily arises, about the Nature of Penance. In the face of all Attacks - by Wycliffe, the Reformers, Liberal Dogmatic Historians and Modernists - the Church has always maintained the Judicial Character of the Sacrament of Penance, and drawn the necessary conclusion.

angel_01.gif (2832 bytes) The Church Teaches:

The Church has the Power to Forgive all Sins. This Forgiveness of Sins is a True Sacrament, Instituted by Christ, different from Baptism, particularly on-account-of its Judicial Form. Sins are Forgiven, only by the Sacrament of Penance. Sins are Forgiven by Absolution, which can only be given by an Authorized Priest. It is a Real Judicial Pardon. The Church has the Power to Reserve, certain cases.

On the part of the Sinner Contrition, Confession and Satisfaction are required. Contrition is Aversion-to the Sins Committed. Perfect Contrition remits Sin, even before Confession, if it is joined with the intention-to Confess. Imperfect Contrition (Attrition), is sufficient if there is Confession, and is a Good and Salutary thing.

Confession must cover all Mortal Sins, committed since Baptism, and not Previously Confessed. Venial Sins, and Sins already Confessed, can Validly be Confessed. And Satisfaction, the Effect of the Sacrament, is Reconciliation with God, that is, the Remission of Sins and the Eternal Punishment, but not all the Temporal Punishment.

 

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The Sacrament of the Eucharist -
by WEYDEN, Rogier van der - from Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp

 

THE SACRAMENT OF THE EUCHARIST angel_02.gif (2330 bytes)

The Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist, consists of that of the Eucharist Sacrifice, the Sacrificial Meal, and the Sacrificial Food, or to express it otherwise, it consists of the Doctrine of the Mass, of Communion, and of the Real Presence. There is no Presence of Christ in the Blessed Sacrament, that is not meant, First and Foremost, as Food for the Faithful People, and there is no Sacramental Union with Christ in Holy Communion, that is not to be thought of as a Sacrificial Meal: 'For as often as you shall eat this Bread, and drink the Chalice, you shall show the Death of the Lord, until He come' (1Corinthians 11:26). The Eucharistic Meal can only be prepared in the Sacrifice of the Mass.

Thus the Mystery of the Eucharist summarizes the Whole Mystery of our Redemption. There are Two (2) Fundamental Relationships in which Christ stands to us. First, He is our Priestly Mediator with God, and offers Him atonement for our Sins. But Christ is not a Stranger to us, who merely Represents us as a Propitiator before God. He comes to us in the Second Relationship, by being the Mediator of the Grace which God gives us, on-account-of his Sacrifice. That is the Mystery of our Union with Christ, Who is the Source of all Grace for us. 'And of His Fullness, we have all received, Grace for Grace' (John 1:16).

This Second Community is realized only in the Sacrifice of the Cross, by His giving His Life for His Church, which He had to Ransom from Himself. Only in Death, did Christ Seal the Deep Covenant with the Church, whereby She is Purified and Sanctified, and which according to the Teaching of Saint Paul, is the Image of the most Intimate Union of Human Beings in Marriage: 'Husbands, Love your Wives, as Christ also Loved the Church, and delivered Himself up for it; that He might Sanctify it, Cleansing it by the Laver of Water in the Word of Life' (Ephesians 5:25). From the Opened Side of our Crucified Savior, the Church was First Born, as Eve was taken from Adam's Side. That is the most Ancient Way of Expressing this Truth.

 

Birth of Eve,
the Bride of Adam,
from Adam's side

Birth of the Church,
the Bride of Christ,
from Christ's Side

"Water and Blood Symbolized Baptism and the Holy Eucharist. From these Two (2) Sacraments the Church is Born: from Baptism, the Cleansing Water that gives Rebirth and Renewal from the Holy Spirit, and from the Holy Eucharist. Since the Symbols of Baptism and the Eucharist flowed from His Side, it was from His Side that Christ 'Fashioned' the Church, as He had 'Fashioned' Eve from the side of Adam".

Saint John Chrysostom, Doctor of the Church

 

This Twofold Relationship, then, in which Christ stands to us Men, as our Mediator before God and the Bringer of all Graces from God, lives-on in the Mystery of the Eucharist. The Holy Mass is the Renewing of the Sacrifice which Christ offered for us, of the Sacrifice of Atonement for our Sins; but the Sacrifice is also at the same time, the Preparation of the Eucharistic Meal, the Sacrament of our Union with Christ, in Grace.

We should not be surprised if the Doctrine of the Real Presence of Christ in the Blessed Sacrament, occurs more than most Doctrines in the Documents of the Church. There are few Mysteries of the Faith where the Mystery is so evident, and therefore so exposed to the Attacks of Heresy and Unbelief. However, the Militant Position of the Church should not prevent us from seeing the Real Presence in the context-of the Whole Eucharistic Mystery.

angel_01.gif (2832 bytes) The Church Teaches:

The Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist is thus made up of:

1. Doctrine about the Eucharistic Sacrifice:
Holy Mass is a Real Sacrifice, Instituted by Christ at the Last Supper. It represents Christ's Sacrifice of the Cross, but in an Unbloody Manner. Priest and Victim are both Christ, Who offers Himself through the Priest. The Laity also offers the Sacrifice, but does not have the Power to Transubstantiate. The Eucharistic Sacrifice is offered to God in Praise, Thanksgiving, Petition and Atonement, for the Living and the Dead. Saints may also be Commemorated in Honor and Petition. The Church has the responsibility of determining the Rites and Prayers to be observed. The Liturgy, as a whole, is the Public Worship by the Mystical Body of Christ. In every Liturgical Activity, Christ is present, in a manner that must be Properly Interpreted.

2. Doctrine about the Eucharistic Sacrament, Sacrificial Meal and Sacrificial Food:
The Holy Eucharist is a True Sacrament, Instituted by Christ. Christ is Really Present, in the Holy Eucharist, even when not being received. It is therefore to be Honored and Adored. The Whole Christ is present in either Kind, and is received by the Communicant. For the Wheat Bread and Grape Wine are Transubstantiated by the Ordained Priest, into the Flesh and Blood of Christ, so that only the Appearance of Bread and Wine remains.

The Sacrament 'Effects' Union with Christ; it is Nourishment for the Soul, gives Increase in Grace, and Remits Venial Sin and Punishment.

 

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The Sacraments of Extreme Unction, Matrimony and Holy Orders -
by WEYDEN, Rogier van der - from Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp

 

THE SACRAMENT OF MATRIMONY angel_02.gif (2330 bytes)

Matrimony is the Marriage Contract between Christians, raised by Christ to the Dignity of a Sacrament. The Theological and Dogmatic Treatment of this Sacrament, does not look very much to its Main Features of Unity and Indissolubility, which are Basic Characteristics of all Marriage in Natural Ethics; they are rather Premises, though of course they attain greater Significance and Depth and Stability, in Marriage as a Sacrament. The fact, then, that these features take up a considerable amount of space in Church Documents, must not be allowed to hide the Theological Content of this Sacrament, which comes to us from Revelation, and belongs to the Supernatural Order. As a Sacrament, Matrimony is entirely oriented-on Man's Supernatural Goal. Matrimony and Orders are the Two (2) Sacraments which not only serve the Individual in Reaching this Goal, but are there for the Benefit of the Community. Matrimony is there for the Mutual Help of the Spouses, and the increase of the People of God. Devotion to this Twofold End, is the Way of Salvation for Married Couples, a Way Sanctified by the Sacrament. 'Yet she shall be Saved through Childbearing; if she continue in Faith, and Love, and Sanctification, with Sobriety' (1Timothy 2:15).

The Mutual Sacrifice and Devotion, of Husband and Wife, is a True Picture of Christ's Sanctifying Sacrifice and Devotion to His Church. "Matrimony has its Significance:

In the First Place, from Christ, Who took the Church as His Bride, at the Price of His Own Blood.

And also, because when He offered His Life as the Price of Her Ransom, He stretched-out His Arms, in an Embrace-of Supreme Love.

And Thirdly: as Eve was formed-from the side of Adam while he slept, so the Church was formed-from the Side of the Dying and Dead Christ, as the Two (2) Chief Sacraments poured-from His Side - the Blood of Redemption and the Water of Absolution" (Albertus Magnus).

It is only from this Point of View, that One can Understand the Church's unceasing Struggle against any attempt to see Marriage as something Unholy, or something merely Profane, of no concern to Religion. The Campaign began with those countless Rigorist or Dualist Sects in Early Times and in the Middle Ages; it defended the Religious Nature of Marriage against the Reformers, for whom it was just a Civil Affair; it represented the demands of the Church in the matter of Matrimonial Legislation in various countries, and defended the Indissolubility of the Marriage Contract and the Sacrament, in the Encyclicals of Leo XIII and Pius XI.

Since Marriage is also of the greatest Civic Significance, Jurisdiction in Matrimonial Matters was One of the commonest causes of differences between Church and State. Since this is solely a question of Dogmatic view-points, the Relevant Documents are omitted. For the same reason, Church Documents dealing mainly with Matrimonial Morality, are omitted.

angel_01.gif (2832 bytes) The Church Teaches:

Marriage is Willed by God and was raised to a Sacrament by Christ. It is therefore Good, but may not be put before the State of Virginity. The Sacrament of Matrimony consists of the Marriage Contract, so that for Christians, the Contract and the Sacrament are Inseparable. Therefore, Marriage comes into the Legal Competence of the Church. The Church may establish Impediments, including 'Diriment' Impediments, which Invalidate a Marriage, and 'Forbidding' Impediments, which make Marriage Illegal. She may determine the Form and Rite to be Observed. Matrimonial Causes, fall-to Ecclesiastical Courts. The purpose-of Marriage is the increase of the People of God, and Mutual Help for the Partners in Loyalty and Love. The Sacrament gives Married People a claim on the Graces, necessary to their State.

Only Monogamy is valid. A New Marriage is allowed after the Death of One (1) Party. Marriage is Indissoluble, even in cases of Adultery. An Unconsummated Marriage, can in certain circumstances, be dissolved-by the Church. Once it is Consummated, a Separation only is possible; the Marriage Bond cannot be Dissolved.

 

THE SACRAMENT OF HOLY ORDERS angel_02.gif (2330 bytes)

The Divine Person/Personality of Christ Unites the gap between His Human and the Divine Natures

Divine
Person/
Personality
(Personal Union)

Divine Nature of Christ

Brick Wall between Natures
(Not Mixed or Fused or Merged)

Human Nature of Christ

 

As to Orders. The Supreme Task which Christ had to Fulfill, was His Priestly Work of Atonement, which He completed as Mediator between God and Man. By the Union in Himself, of Humanity and Divinity, Christ is by Nature, the Mediator. As a Man from among Men, Christ is our Mediator with the Father; yet He is also capable of Offering a Worthy Sacrifice to God, because, by-virtue-of the Union of His Human Nature with the Second Person of the Godhead, His Human Actions have an Infinite Value. In this Fullest Sense, the Priesthood belongs to Christ alone.

But if Christ wished to Live-on and Continue his Work in the Church, the First Thing he had to do was to Provide-for the Continuance-of his Sacerdotal and Mediatory Function. Above all, if Christ wished to 'Renew' the Sacrifice of the Cross throughout the Ages, and all over the World as the Sacrifice-of the New Law in the Holy Mass, He had to allow other Men to share in His Priesthood. For if there is to be a True Sacrifice, there must be a Priesthood, Ordained and Authorized by God, from whose hands, God will Accept the Sacrifice.

Offices of the Church,
the Body of
Christ Incarnate

Incarnate Christ - Head

Church

Ordained Bishop
Ordained Priest
Deacon
Baptized Member, Laity

All Attacks on the Priesthood of the Catholic Church thus go back to denial that the Holy Mass is a True Sacrifice, entrusted by Christ to His Church, and ultimately to denial-of any Visible Church to which Christ entrusted His Work as Mediator and Redeemer. So the Attacks of Wycliffe, the Reformers and the "Liberal" Historians regarded the setting-up of an Official Priesthood as the result of the Evolution of Christian Life in the early Christian Communities.

The Priesthood is Ordained in the First Place for the Offering of Sacrifice, and therefore for the Solemnization of the Church's Formal Worship. The Arrangements for these Celebrations demand also a Corresponding Ministry, and thus 'Graded' Ministers to the Altar. This 'Grading' of the Ministry goes in-part, back to Direct Institution by Christ, but in-part was introduced by the Church.

The Degrees of Order - the Four (4) Minor and Three (3) Major Orders, with the highest of all, that of Bishop - signify an Order of Rank in the Mediation of Grace. It must be distinguished from the other Order of Rank, which concerns Jurisdiction, Magisterium and Pastorate. The latter are not Essentially linked with the Powers of Mediation of Grace, but in the Concrete Order established by God, there are Close Relationships between the Two (2) kinds of Power. For example, the fact that the Power of Forgiving Sins exists in the Church, does not, in itself, say anything about who has this Power. But in the Divine Order, only a Priest can have it.

Besides the conflict about the fact of the Sacrament of Holy Orders, its Institution by Christ and its Hierarchical Structure, it has always been a Principal Concern of the Church to raise the Priesthood to the High Moral Level suitable to its Sublime Duties. In the West, a most important stem in this direction was the insistence on Celibacy. But as we are concerned here solely with Doctrinal Matters, Documents on this are not given.

angel_01.gif (2832 bytes)The Church Teaches:

Orders is a True Sacrament, Instituted by Christ, Who Ordained the Apostles at the Last Supper. It is Administered by the 'Laying-on of Hands' and the Key Phrases of the Ordination Preface. Only a Bishop can validly Ordain. Orders is a purely Ecclesiastical Concern. The 'Effect' of the Sacrament of Orders, is to Impart the Holy Spirit and to Impress an Indelible Character, which Permanently Distinguishes those in Orders, from the Laity. The Laity also has a part in Christ's Priesthood, but in another manner. The Office of Bishop is above the Priesthood (which in turn is above the Diaconate) and gives Special Powers of Consecration. To the Priesthood belong the Celebration of Holy Mass and the Power of Forgiving Sins. The Subdiaconate belongs to the Priesthood and Diaconate to the 'Major Orders'. In addition, the Four (4) 'Minor Orders' were Instituted by the Church. Conditions for the Valid Reception of Orders, are Baptism and being of the Male Sex.

 

THE SACRAMENT OF EXTREME UNCTION
OR
ANOINTING OF THE SICK angel_02.gif (2330 bytes)

As to Anointing by Conferring the Holy Spirit, completes the Sacrament of Baptism, so Extreme Unction is the Complement and Completion of Penance. Penance restores the Justification lost-by Sin, Extreme Unction takes-away the Infirmity left by Sin; it "Removes that State which might be an Obstacle to the Clothing with Glory of the Resurrection"; and, as every Sacrament makes us Men in some respect like Christ, "So we become, by Extreme Unction, like the Risen Christ, because it will be given to the Dying as a Sign of the Glory to come, in which everything Mortal will be stripped-from the Elect" (Albertus Magnus). According to the Teaching of great Theologians, the Holy Anointing makes the Man who stands at the Threshold of Eternity, and Loyally Cooperates with the Grace of the Sacrament, ready-to enter directly upon the Beatific Vision.

That this Sacrament was provided for the Sick, to Strengthen them and Prepare them for a Happy Passage to the Hereafter, was for Centuries an Undisputed part of Tradition. The Ancient Prayers accompanying the Anointing of the Sick are evidence of this. The Church only had to concern herself officially with the Doctrinal Side of it, when Particular Questions cropped up or Errors appeared. For this reason, the Earliest Documents deal more with the Question of the Minister and the External Rites. It was not until the Reformation denied the Sacramentality of Extreme Unction, and its Institution by Christ, that a more-exact Exposition was demanded of the Council of Trent.

angel_01.gif (2832 bytes)The Church Teaches:

Extreme Unction is a True Sacrament, Instituted by Christ and Proclaimed by Saint James. It is Administered by Anointing-with Blessed Oil, Accompanied-by Prayer. Only a Priest can validly Administer it. It can be received-by any Baptized Person, who has reached the Age of Reason, and is on account-of Sickness or Age, in Danger of Death. Its 'Effect' is the Strengthening of the Soul, often of the Body as well, and in the necessary conditions, Remission of Sins.