The "Filioque" Wording Of The Nicene Creed


The Paraclete (God the Holy Spirit, the Sanctifier) Presides at the Baptism of Christ -
by VERONESE, Paolo - from Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan

 

Evolution of the "Filioque" Wording of the Nicene Creed

Creed of Nicaea
325 AD

Creed of Constantinople
381 AD

Nicene Creed from
Today's Roman Missal

And we Believe in the Holy Ghost. And we Believe in the Holy Ghost,
the Lord and Giver-of-Life,
Who Proceeds from the Father.

We Believe in the Holy Spirit,
the Lord, the Giver-of-Life,
Who Proceeds from the Father

and the Son.

***

Who with the Father and the Son together is Worshipped and Glorified . . . With the Father and the Son
He is Worshipped and Glorified . . .

"Filoque" is Latin for: and the Son

 

The "Filioque" Wording Of The Nicene Creed

by Father William Saunders
President of the Notre Dame Institute for Catechetics

angelbar.gif (3645 bytes)

In John 15:26, Jesus tells us, "But when the Comforter is come, Whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of Truth, which Proceedeth from the Father, He shall Testify of Me". Why does the Nicene Creed read, "We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, Who Proceeds from the Father and the Son"?

This Question is not New. Textbooks of Church History usually refer to this as the "Filioque Clause Controversy". (Filioque is Latin for "and the Son"). The Creedal Citation referenced actually appears in the Creed of the Council of Constantinople (381 A.D.). The Creed of the Council of Nicaea (325 A.D.) ended, "And in the Holy Spirit".

At that time, however, a Group called the Pneumatomachi (Combators of the Spirit) denied the Divinity of the Holy Spirit, and consequently the Holy Trinity. In Response, the Council of Constantinople (381 A.D.) 'Affirmed' Creed of Nicaea and added the Last Section, which Clarified the Role of the Holy Spirit. In the Original Greek Text, this Last Section reads, "And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of Life, Who Proceeds from the Father, Who together with the Father and the Son is Worshipped and Glorified . . ." Thus, the Nicene Creed we Profess at Mass was Actually Promulgated by the Council of Constantinople.

The Creed was Later Translated into Latin with the Addition, "Who Proceeds from the Father and the Son" (Filioque). This Filioque Clause First appeared in the Translation issued by the Council of Toledo, Spain, in 589 A.D.. During the Carolingian Dynasty, Charlemagne petitioned Pope Leo III at the Synod of Aachen (809 A.D.) to have the Filioque Clause accepted Universally. The Pope declined, Hesitating to add anything, however Appropriate, to the Official Text of a Conciliar-Creed. Several Church Fathers argued that the Meaning of the Filioque Clause was no Different from the Meaning of the Succinct-Teaching, "Father through the Son".

Nevertheless, the Filioque Clause was added to the Creed Recited in the Roman Mass (Latin Rite) by Pope Benedict VIII (1024 A.D.), but was not used in the Liturgy of the Eastern Rites.

The Filioque Clause has been cited as One (1) of the Official Causes of the Schism between the Western and Eastern Churches in 1054 A.D.. Although this Point was later Officially Remedied by the Churches at the Councils of Lyons II (1274 A.D.) and Florence (1439 A.D.), the Reconciliation was Short-lived. The Filioque Clause still remains a Point of Contention between Roman Catholics and Orthodox Christians. (As an Aside, this is one reason why the Orthodox Churches call themselves "the Orthodox")

In God there are Three (3) Equal and
Distinct Persons:

yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Father - Has no Origin
yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Son - Proceeds from the Father
yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Holy Spirit - Proceeds from Father & Son

Each Person has the One (1) same Divine:

yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Substance
yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Nature
yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Essence
yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Being
yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Power
yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Intellect
yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Knowledge
yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Love
yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Will
yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Mind
yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Godhead
yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Divinity
yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Consciousness
yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Wisdom
yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Holiness
yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Majesty

 

Why then did the Church add the Filioque Clause? Remember, during those Early Councils, like Nicaea and Constantinople, the Church, Guided by the Holy Spirit, was Struggling to Clarify the Mystery of Christ, the Incarnate Word of God, and thereby the Trinity. We Believe in One (1) God, Divinely Revealed as Father, Son and Holy Spirit. All Three (3) Persons of the Trinity are Equal, are Distinct, share the same Divine Nature, and exist from all Eternity.

With this in Mind, let us Examine Sacred Scripture. We find the Holy Spirit referred-to as the Spirit of the Son (Galatians 4:6) and the Spirit of Christ (Romans 8:9, Philippians 1:19). He is also called Spirit of the Father (Matthew 10:20) and the Spirit of God (1Corinthians 2:11). These Citations show the same Relationship of the Holy Spirit to the Son as to the Father.

The Spirit is sent by both the Father and the Son: "When the Paraclete comes, the Spirit of Truth Who comes from the Father and Whom I Myself will send from the Father will Bear Witness on My Behalf" (John 15:26). "It is much better for you that I go. If I fail to go, the Paraclete will never come to you; whereas if I go, I will send Him to you" (John 16:7). "This much have I told you while I was still with you; the Paraclete, the Holy Spirit Whom the Father will send in My Name, will Instruct you in everything, and Remind you of all that I told you" (John 14:25-6).

Origin of the Holy Spirit

God the Father possesses Two (2)
Internal Divine Processions

Father
& Son

as from
One (1)
Principle

arrow002.gif (3348 bytes) Spirate
(not Begotten,
not Made,
not Created)

The Holy Spirit Proceeds (Spirates)from both the Father and the Son
 

Finally, our Lord Himself Attests-to the Intimate Bonding and Sharing between the Persons of the Trinity: "When He comes, however, being the Spirit of Truth, He will Guide you to all Truth. He will not speak on His own, but will speak only what He hears, and will announce to you the things to come. In doing this He will give Glory to Me, because He will have received from Me what He will Announce to you. All that the Father has, Belongs to Me. That is why I said that what He will announce to you, He will have from Me" (John 16:13-15). Given this Basis in Scripture, the Church Teaches that the Holy Spirit Proceeds from both the Father and the Son.

The Council of Florence (1439 A.D.) summed it up well. The Council 'Defined' that the Holy Spirit is Eternally from both the Father and the Son, Shares the same Divine Nature as Father and Son, and Proceeds Eternally in One (1) "Spiration" from Father and Son as from One (1) "Principle". Moreover, the Council stated that since the Father has given to the Eternally Begotten Son everything, "we define that the explanatory words 'Filioque' have been added in the Symbol [Creed] Legitimately and with Good Reason for the sake of Clarifying the Truth and under the Impact of a Real Need at that time".

In all, never was the addition of the Filioque Clause meant to change the Meaning or Teaching of the Creed, but rather to Clarify It from Misinterpretation. This Dispute is actually more a Matter of Semantics.