Mary: Mother of Redemption
by Theologian, Father William G. Most
"A sort of Infinite Dignity ... a Dignity Second-to that of God". In such terms did Pope
Pius XI speak of the Blessed Virgin Mary in his Encyclical
Lux Veritatis (1931),
commemorating the Fifteenth Centenary of the Council of Ephesus, which taught that
Mary is the Mother of God. The Pope did not assert
she was Infinite, or Divine;
of course not. He did say that her Dignity,
as the Mother of God, is in a way Similar-to an Infinite
Dignity, because of the Infinity of God, and
that her Dignity is
Second-only to the Dignity of God Himself.
God's Plan for the Salvation of Mankind
(Protoevangelium), after the Fall of Man
due to Original Sin
Old Covenant/Old Testament
New Covenant/New Testament
The Old Covenant was written on Stone Tablets.
The Stone Tablets
have turned to Dust.
The New Covenant is written within the Heart. The
Mass is the Eternal New Covenant which is Renewed,
Repeated Four (4) Times every Second on Earth.
Jesus - New Adam
Mary - New Eve
The Disobedience and Original Sin of
Adam and Eve
Destroyed Man's Supernatural Life and became the
'Cause' of Death for the Whole Human Race
The Obedience, Faith, Hope and Burning Love of
Jesus and Mary
Restored Supernatural Life and became the
'Cause' of Salvation & Life for the Whole Human Race
Due to the Stains of Original Sin,
Old Testament Man could not Fulfill any of God's Covenants.
The Sacrament of Baptism washes away the Stains of Original Sin and
restores Supernatural Life (Grace).
Adam and Eve
Merited no Glory
Jesus Merited the Glory of the Resurrection
Mary Merited the Glory of the Assumption
Just as Christ ... Blotted-out the Handwriting of the Decree that was against us, and, as a Conqueror, Fastened it to the
Cross, so the most Holy Virgin, Joined-with Him in a most Close and Indissoluble Bond, together with Him and through Him,
carried-on Eternal-Enmity against the Poisonous Serpent, and, most Fully Triumphing over him, Crushed his Head with her
Blessed Pope Pius IX
The Immaculate Conception -
by Francisco de Zurbarán -
from Szepmuveseti Muzeum, Budapest, Hungary
In the Apostolic-Constitution Ineffabilis Deus
(1854), in which was defined the Dogma of the Immaculate
Conception, Pope Pius IX taught that her
Holiness, even at the beginning of her Life, was such that
"None greater under God can be thought of, and no one, except God, can Comprehend it".
Pius IX and Pius XI both spoke with Theological Precision. Yet, when even the Incomprehensible
Holiness of our Heavenly Mother is defined,
not all, not nearly all, concerning her Marvels has been said.
She Possesses another Quality of which even Catholics devoted to her are
little-aware. It is this, though she herself, like all Men, was
Redeemed, she actually Contributed-to Redeeming
Mary, the New Eve
Little understood as it may be, Our Lady's Role in
Redemption began to be Elucidated in the Writings of the earliest Fathers-of-the-Church; several Popes
of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries traced it further; Vatican II
had much to say on the matter, notably in Chapter 8 (Sections
52-69) of the Constitution-on-the-Church Lumen Gentium.
Our main concern here is with the 'Council's Pronouncements', hoping in our Examination of them not simply to Understand the
Cooperation-in Redemption, but
also to Correct Certain Distortions of what the
Church Actually Teaches on her. Far from having Downgraded
Mary in any way, the Council made clearer than ever-before, how Exalted
her Place is in the Scheme-of-Things.
Saint Paul loved to think of Christ as the
New Adam (e.g., in Romans 5:19), Who by
His Obedience undid the Damage done by the
Disobedience of the Old Adam. The earliest Fathers-of-the-Church liked to think of
Mary as the New Eve.
Saint Justin Martyr, in his Dialogue with Trypho,
said that Christ "was made Man of the Virgin, so that the
Disobedience Brought-on by the Serpent might be Cancelled-out in the same manner in which it had begun" He continued, 'Contrasting'
Eve and Mary: "For Eve ... conceiving the word from
the Serpent, brought-forth Disobedience and Death. But Mary ... when the Angel announced to her that the Spirit of the Lord would come upon her ...
answered: Be it done to me according to your word".
Saint Irenaeus (who studied at the feet of Saint Polycarp, who was in turn a Disciple of
Saint John the Apostle) spoke at even Greater Length than Saint Justin of Our
Lady as the New Eve: "Just as she [the Old Eve]
... being Disobedient, became a Cause of Death for herself and the Whole Human Race: so Mary ... being Obedient, became a Cause of
Salvation for herself and the Whole Human Race" (Against Heresies). And he drew this Suggestive Analogy:
" ... for in no other way can that which is Tied, be Untied, unless the very Windings of the Knot are gone
through in Reverse; so that the First Joints are Loosed through the Second, and the Second in-turn Free the First .... Thus then, the
Knot of the Disobedience of Eve was Untied through the Obedience of Mary".
Nearly all the Early Fathers likened Mary to a
New Eve. Let us consider but One-more, Tertullian, who, like Saints Justin and
Irenaeus, pointed-out the Similarity between the Manner of the Fall and
that of the Restoration: ". . God, by a Rival Method, Restored
His Image and Likeness .... For into Eve, when she was yet a Virgin, had crept the word that Established Death; likewise, into a Virgin
there was to be brought the Word of God that Produced Life; so that what had Gone to Ruin by the One Sex, might be Restored to Salvation
by the Same Sex".
These Teachings of Justin, Irenaeus and Tertullian attest to the State-of-Belief in the
Early Church in Asia Minor, Gaul, Palestine and Africa. Together with the
other Fathers, we have in them a Mirror, as it were, of the Faith of the
Whole Church. That Faith clearly-included a Belief that
Mary Cooperated, at-least Remotely, in the Objective Redemption of all Mankind
in the Acquisition of Forgiveness and Grace
for all Men. Such, Universal Belief cannot be in Error, for, as Vatican II reminded
us in Section 12 of the Constitution-on-the-Church Lumen Gentium:
"The entire Body of the Faithful, Anointed as they are by the Holy One, cannot Err in Matters of Belief".
the Early Fathers are liable-to Interpretation, and our own Unaided-reasoning cannot give us Certitude as to the Correct Interpretation
of their use of the New Eve Analogy, in regard to Mary.
Did she Share Immediately in the Work of Redemption,
even unto Calvary itself? We must turn to the Interpretation of the
Church to answer this Question. As Vatican II said in Section 10 of
the Constitution-on-the-Church Lumen Gentium: "The
Task of Authoritatively Interpreting the Word of God, whether Written or Handed-on [Scripture or the Tradition of the Fathers] has been
Entrusted Exclusively to the Living Magisterium of the Church, whose Authority is Exercised in the Name of Jesus Christ". The Council
further said in Section 25 of the Constitution-on-the-Church
Lumen Gentium: " ... Religious Submission of Will
and of Mind must be shown in a Special Way to the authentic Magisterium of the Roman Pontiff, even when he is not Defining, that is, it
must be shown in such a way that the Judgments made by him are Sincerely adhered-to".
A Significant Papal Teaching on Mary's Cooperation-in Redemption
was Imparted-by Pope Pius IX. In Ineffabilis Deus
he wrote: "Just as Christ ... Blotted-out the Handwriting of the Decree that was against us, and, as a Conqueror,
Fastened it to the Cross, so the most Holy Virgin, Joined-with Him in a most Close and Indissoluble Bond, together with Him and through Him,
carried-on Eternal-Enmity against the Poisonous Serpent, and, most Fully Triumphing over him, Crushed his Head with her Immaculate Foot.
Now, if the Bond between Christ and Mary is
Indissoluble, it should not be Broken, even on Calvary.
In 1904 Saint Pius X Promulgated the Encyclical
Ad Diem Illum Laetissimum, to Commemorate the Fiftieth Anniversary
of the Definition of the Immaculate Conception. He spoke there of a “never
Dissociated, Manner of Life and Labors of the Son and the Mother” and he added that, “from this
Common Sharing of Will and Suffering between Christ and Mary, she Merited to become most Worthily the Reparatrix, of the Lost World, and
therefore, Dispensatrix of all the Gifts which Jesus gained for us by His Death ... she Merited for us Congruously, as they say, what
Christ Merited Condignly”.
1918, Pope Benedict XV Declared (Inter Sodalicia):
“With her Suffering and Dying Son, Mary endured Suffering and almost Death ... she, as much as she could,
Immolated her Son, so that one can Truly Affirm that, together with Christ, she has Redeemed the Human Race”.
The great Marian Pope, Pius XII, addressing our Theme even before his Elevation-to the Papacy, said in
1937 (quoted from Osservatore Romano): “After all, the Application of
the Merits of Christ Constitutes, together with their Acquisition, a Single Complete Work, that of Salvation”. Obviously, these words
refer to both 'Objective' (Acquisition of the Merits) and 'Subjective' (Application)
Redemption, as distinguished by Theologians. The then Cardinal Pacelli went on:
“It was fitting that Mary should Cooperate Equally in the Two Phases of the Same Work: the Unity of the Divine
Plan demands it”.
As Pope, Pius XII Issued his Encyclical on the
Mystical Body in 1943. Therein, speaking of Our
Lady, he stated: "She it was who, Free from all Sin, Original and Personal, and always most
intimately United with her Son, as the New Eve, offered Him on Golgotha, together with the Holocaust of her Maternal Rights and
Love". That same year, Pius sent a Cardinal Legate to Fatima to place
for him a Crown on the famous Statue there. He himself spoke to the Crowds over the Vatican Radio: "Jesus is King
throughout all Eternity, by Nature and by Right of Conquest; through-Him, and subordinate-to Him, Mary is Queen by Grace, by Divine
Relationship, by Right of Conquest, and by Singular Choice".
By Right of Conquest ... When applied to Christ, the
Phrase must refer to the very Culmination and Heart of the Objective Redemption, the Great
Sacrifice itself; when applied to Mary, it must
mean that through Him, with
Him, and subordinate to Him,
she also cooperated in the Objective
Redemption on Calvary itself.
There is another, even more telling, Text of Pius XII bearing on our Subject; from the Constitution in which he defined the
Assumption, but before we consider it, let us turn to our Main Concern, the Examination of what
Vatican II said about Our Lady and her
Most of the Council's Teaching is found in Chapter 8 (
Sections 52-69) of the Constitution-on-the-Church Lumen
Gentium, though there are Significant Statements in other documents too.
Early in the Section 53 the Council quotes Saint Augustine:
"She Cooperated by Love, that the Faithful might be Born in the Church". The Council
goes farther and adds (Section 56): "The Holy Fathers [of the First
Centuries] saw Mary as not just Passively Employed by God, but as Cooperating-with freely-given Faith and Obedience, for Human Salvation.
For she, as Saint Irenaeus said, 'being Obedient, became a Cause of Salvation for herself and the Whole Human Race'". This is the
Passage we cited earlier from Saint Irenaeus. Section 56 continues:
"Hence not a few Ancient Fathers in their Preaching gladly say with him; 'the Knot of the Disobedience of
Eve was Untied through the Obedience of Mary: that which the Virgin Eve Bound by her Lack of Faith, this the Virgin Mary
Loosed by her Faith'".
The next Section (#57) enunciates a Broad
Principle: "This Joining of the Mother with the Son in the Work of Salvation is obvious, from the Time of the
Virginal Conception of Christ all the way to His Death". The Council then marks every Phase of the Life and
Mysteries of the Redeemer, at each Point showing
the Cooperation of Mary. Later we shall recall that Summary, but now we want to note the Stress
placed on the Constancy of her Union with Him.
Cooperation as the New Eve could
not have begun at the Annunciation, but then been Interrupted and Broken-off long before the Great
Sacrifice. Indeed, the Council emphasizes (
Section 58): "In Faith she Bore with her Union with her Son, even to the Cross, where she stood, in
accord with the Divine Plan, greatly Grieved with her Only Begotten, and Joined herself to His Sacrifice with a Motherly Heart, Consenting
to the Immolation of the Victim that had been Born of her".
Again Section 61 of the Constitution-on-the-Church
Lumen Gentium, stresses that Mary Shared-in
Christ's Work of Redemption at every Point in
her Son's Life: "In Conceiving Christ, in Bringing Him
Forth, in Nourishing Him, in Presenting Him to the Father in the Temple, in Suffering with her Son as He Died on the Cross, she Cooperated in the
Work of the Savior in an altogether Singular Way, by Obedience, Faith, Hope and Burning Love, to Restore Supernatural Life to Souls. As a result,
she is our Mother in the Order of Grace".
Rich indeed is the Content of this Conciliar Teaching. We note that the Council, like the Early Fathers, speaks of the
Work of the Redemption as extending-through the Whole Life of the
Redeemer. Mary Shared at every Point.
The Council says Mary's Sharing-in Christ's
Work was altogether Singular. It said this because we have always been told, correctly, that we all
Cooperate-in our own
Salvation. But our Cooperation is not only lesser-in-degree than Mary's, it is
different in-kind, as well.
Her Cooperation was Immediate and in the Objective Redemption,
the once-for-all 'Earning' of the Infinite Treasury of Forgiveness
and Grace. Our
Cooperation is merely in the 'Application' of those
We note, too, that the Council said she
Obedience, Faith, Hope and Burning Love". We have already seen the Special Stress the Council places on
Obedience. In an earlier chapter, it had said of her
Son that, "by His Obedience, He brought about Redemption"
(an Echo of Saint Paul, Romans 5:19).
Why such Stress on Obedience? To Grasp the Answer, we must Undertake a Brief Excursion into
Speculative Theology and try to Fill-in the Outlines offered by the Council. Granted, in doing so we no longer have the
Guarantee-of-Truth we have when we are simply Repeating-the-Teachings of the Council, but the Effort is still
Moses with the Ten Commandments -
by Philippe de Champaigne -
from The Hermitage, Saint Petersburg
Our Excursion is by way of a Neglected Part of Theology, that of the Covenants. (Theologians and Scripture Scholars have made little use
of Covenant Theology because parts of it are so much debated.) After the People of Israel had been delivered from
Egypt by the Mighty Works of God, they came to the Foot of Mount Sinai.
Moses ascended the Mountain, and was with God there
Forty (40) days and Forty (40) nights. God
Spoke-to the People through him (Exodus 19:5): "If you really Obey My Voice and Keep My Covenant, you
shall be My Special Possession, more so than all People, though all the Earth is Mine". In these words
God seems to say: If you keep My Covenant Law, you will receive Special Favor.
It seemed to be a kind-of Pact; If you do This, I will do That.
It is Precisely this Feature that has Worried many Scholars. God
cannot Owe anything to His Creatures, they have Contended;
such a Pact would Bind Him so
He would Owe things to them.
We reply: It is True, God cannot Owe anything to any
Creature. Yet, if He Freely Chooses to enter into such an Arrangement as this, to give
His Word, then He will
Owe it to Himself, though Strictly, not to
His People, to do what He has Pledged, provided they keep
their Part of the Arrangement.
We note there are Two (2) features to this Old Covenant:
God Binds Himself to show Favor to the
People of God;
He does so on-Condition of their Obedience
to His Covenant Law.
As we know, the First People of God did not do well in Fulfilling their Part of
the Pact. Again-and-again they went after False Gods, even though
He sent Prophets to Warn them of coming
Ruin. At length He would Unleash the
Evil of which He had Warned them. When
they had Suffered long, they would Repent and turn to
Him. Then He, in His Goodness,
always sent them a Deliverer. Yet, Sad to say, once they
had been Rescued, it was not very long until they again Returned to their Previous Infidelity.
Finally there came the Greatest of the Series of Disasters; the Final Onslaught of
Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon, who Deported all but a few of the Jews to
Babylon. During that Era, God sent one of the Greatest of the Prophets,
Jeremiah. Through him God said (Jeremiah 31:31-33):
"I will make a New Covenant, not like the Covenant I made with their Fathers .... My Covenant they Broke, and I
was a Master over them [instead of a Father] says the Lord. But this is the New Covenant ... I will place My Law within them and write it
upon their Hearts. And I will be their God and they shall be My People".
We notice that the New Covenant is to be different. The Old was 'Broken', and it is implied that the New will be 'Unbreakable'. The Old
was written-on Tablets-of-Stone; the New would be written-on Hearts. But just as in the Old,
so also in the New, there are Two (2) essential features: both Covenants bring into being a
People of God; both do so on Condition-of Obedience.
In the Old Covenant, it was the Obedience of God's
First People. In the New, it is basically the Obedience of
Christ, the Head of the New People of
God. Hence Vatican II said in Section 3 of the Constitution-on-the-Church
Lumen Gentium,: "by His Obedience, He brought about
The Last Supper - by CRESPI, Daniele -
from Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan
In the Cenacle (Last Supper) He pledged that
Obedience; on the Morrow (Good Friday)
He carried-out what He had pledged,
by Dying. He made
His Pledge in a Dramatic, Symbolic Fashion during a Passover Meal.
Since we are not so Apt-at Symbolism, as were the Old People of God, we do well to Translate
the Symbols into our Forms of Expression as Christ takes Bread and Wine and speaks to the
Father: Father, I know the Command You have laid upon Me; I am to
Die tomorrow. Very well, here is Body, here is Blood, Separate, under the Appearance of the Death to which I now turn Myself over, I
Accept, I Obey.
We were not present on either that Holy Thursday or Good Friday. But
it is the Will of the Father that we
Join with Christ in this Offering. Saint
Paul makes clear that the Christian must do all with
Christ. He must Suffer with Him,
Die with Him, be buried with
Him, rise with Him. All this the
Christian does in a Triple (3) Way:
Sacramentally, in the Death and
Resurrection of Baptism (Paul
is thinking of course of the Imagery of Burial and Emergence in Baptism by immersion);
Mystically, in Dying to
Sin with Christ, and Rising to a New Life, so that we Live our
Present Life with the Eyes of a Man who has just Risen from the Tomb on the Last Day;
how different all Values will seem then!
Physically, by Dying now, and Rising on the
Hence Paul told the Romans (8:9): "If anyone does not have the Spirit of
Christ, he does not Belong to Christ". That is, a Man must Follow-the-Lead of the Spirit of
Christ, Who leads him to do things as
He did. But Christ Redeemed
us by Obedience; hence the Christian must be
Preeminently like Christ in this, as well as in all other things. So Paul
adds (8:13): "If by the Spirit, you put to Death the Deeds of the Flesh, you will Live. Whoever are Led by the
Spirit of God, they are Sons of God".
Now, Vatican II in Section 10 of the Constitution-on-the-Church
Lumen Gentium, tells us that the
Mass is the Renewal of the New Covenant. Since, as we said, we were not there when the Covenant was made,
Christ arranged for its 'Constant Renewal', the
Mass, in which the Priest Acts in the Person of Christ, and Repeats the
same Dramatized Acceptance of the Will of the Father that
Christ Himself used in making the New Covenant; this so we may Join-in His
Obedience. Into that Point, we Focus our Whole Lives, Past, Present, Future. We bring there
the Offering-of our Past Obedience, with
Regrets for its Defects, and our Pledge of Better Future
Obedience, Pouring both into the Present Instant of the Renewal.
We can see the Offering in the Renewal of the New Covenant is Twofold. It is
the Offering of Christ the Head, with that of the Members of
Someone may object; the Offering of Christ is Infinite
(∞). Infinity (∞)
plus anything Finite does not increase. We reply; Quite True, in Mathematics.
But this is not the Terrain of Mathematics, this is the Realm of Divine Generosity,
which seems Unwilling to Stop as-long-as there is anything more that can be added to make it Richer.
Now, if the Mass is, as Vatican II says, the Renewal of the New Covenant,
obviously the Renewal should Repeat Correctly, Truly, that which it claims to Renew and Repeat. In other words, the Making of the New Covenant
and its Renewal should be really Parallel; else we should call it not a Renewal, but something different. And here is where we discover a
Magnificent Conclusion; if in the Renewal or Repetition, there is a Twofold-offering, then, in
the Making of the New Covenant there must have been also a Twofold-offering. What could that
Second element be in the Making of the Covenant? Vatican II seems to indicate it.
It said in Section 3 of the Constitution-on-the-Church
Lumen Gentium, that Christ, "by His Obedience
brought about Redemption". It stressed more-than-once that a Basic Aspect of Mary's
Cooperation with Him was her
Obedience. Hence, it seems Inescapable; the Making of the New Covenant also included a
Twofold-offering, that of Christ and Mary, so that
the Two (2) Melted-together, as it were, to Form the One (1)
great Price of Redemption, to use Saint Paul's
expression (1Corinthians 6:20).
And now we Cite that Passage of Pius XII from his Apostolic Constitution
Munificentissimus Deus (
1950) which we earlier reserved: "We must remember especially that since the Second Century,
the Virgin Mary has been Presented by the Holy Fathers as the New Eve, who, although Subject to the New Adam, was most Closely Associated
with Him in that Struggle against the Infernal Enemy which, as foretold in the Protoevangelium, was to result in that most complete Victory over
Sin and Death, which are always Associated with each other in the Writings of the Apostle of the Gentiles".
The sentence is Long and Heavy. Let us stop to Digest it before reading further. The Pope recalls the
New Eve Teaching of the Fathers. He says that, as Foretold in the Protoevangelium
(Genesis 3:15: "I will put Enmity between you and the Serpent ... "),
she was Closely-bound with the New Adam,
her Son, in the
Struggle against Sin, the Sacrifice
of Calvary. Then the Pope adds: "Wherefore, just
as the Glorious Resurrection of Christ was an Essential Part and Final Sign of this Victory, so also that Struggle which was common to the
Blessed Virgin and her Son had to be closed by the Glorification of her Virginal Body".
The Pope is telling us that Christ's
Death and Resurrection are really both part of the Total Victory.
His Death brought the
Glorification of Resurrection to
Him. But, and here is the Key to the Thought, His
Great Sacrifice, which Pius calls the Struggle, was a Work
that was "Common to the Blessed Virgin and her Son". A Work-in-Common should bring a Result-in-Common.
To Him, the Struggle brought the
Glorification of the Resurrection; hence to
her, it strictly had to bring the Glorification
of the Assumption. Or simply, a Common-Cause had to have a Common-Effect. The Cause, the
Struggle, was common-to Jesus and
Mary; it brought the Common-Effect of Glorification to both.
Here indeed we have Magnificent Light on the Full Meaning of her
Cooperation in the
Redemption. We speak of that
Cooperation, not just in some Loose, Vague Sense, it was
True in a Sense so-Strict, so-Full, that it could Literally be the Support of a Solemn Definition. For the
Truth of the Assumption flows-from the fact that the
Struggle, Calvary, was a Work in-Common, so Strictly in-Common
that it had to Produce a Common Glorification for
Jesus and Mary, Resurrection
for Him, Assumption for
From what we
have already considered, a further-Deduction is possible. If the Mass is the Renewal of the
New Covenant, as Vatican II says, and if in the Original making of that Covenant,
Mary had a Role, then; can the Renewal be carried-out without the Marian Element? Can it be said to be Truly a Renewal, a
Repeat, without her who had so Great a Part in the Original? It seems hard to see how it
could be done.
In what would that Role of hers consist? Every
Sacrifice includes Two (2) elements, the Internal Dispositions and the
Outward Sign that expresses those Dispositions. On Calvary
she provided the very Flesh in which
He could Die. On our Altars
today, it is still the same Flesh that He
received from her that becomes present.
The Inward Dispositions that are expressed by that Sign were, in the case of Christ,
His Obedience, His Adoration,
His Thanksgiving, His Love,
His Desire for Reparation toward the Father.
Mary on Calvary Joined-closely in those
Dispositions, at Immense Cost, as we have seen. Now that
He is in Heaven, He has
not changed those Attitudes toward His Father; they are the very same as when
He Died; so are
her Attitudes the same.
Hence, since Mary shares-in both the Interior Dispositions and in the Outward
Sign, we see there is no Mass without her.
Therefore, the more closely we are United-to Christ in the
Mass, the more closely we are United-to her, whether we realize it or not.
Have Mercy on Your People my Son
We have noted from Section 61 of the Constitution-on-the-Church
Lumen Gentium, how the Council taught
Cooperation in Redeeming us.
In the very next sentence, it was added: "As a result, she is our Mother in the Order of Grace".
These words, as a result carry a Rich Meaning. We Reflect that in the Natural Order, a Mother deserves that Title because of
Two (2) functions:
First, she Shares in bringing a New Life
Second, she takes care of that New Life as
long as there is Need and as long as she is able.
As to the First of these Functions, Mary
shared-on Calvary, at the Cost of Immense Pain,
in bringing New Life into Being, "To Restore Supernatural Life to Souls". In other words, it is because
she shared-in bringing New Life to us that she
can be called our Mother in the Order of Grace.
As to Mary's Other Maternal Function, we never Lose
our need of her, for we never Outgrow our Need of Grace.
As the Council says in Paragraph 62: "This Motherhood of Mary in the Order of Grace continues
without ceasing, from the Consent she gave in Faith at the Annunciation, and which she continued Unhesitatingly at the Cross, until the
Eternal Consummation of all the Elect .... With her Motherly Love she cares for the Brothers of her Son Who are still on the Way, still
Engaged in Dangers and Difficulties until they be brought to the Blessed Fatherland. For this reason, the Blessed Virgin is invoked in
the Church under the Titles of Advocate, Auxiliatrix, Helper and Mediatrix".
In light of all we have considered here, we see how fitting it is that Section 67 of
the Constitution-on-the-Church Lumen Gentium, should declare:
"This Most Holy Synod ... admonishes all the Sons of the Church that they should Generously Cultivate Devotion,
especially Liturgical Devotion, toward the Blessed Virgin, and that they should consider of Great Importance the Practices and Exercises
of Piety toward her that were recommended by the Magisterium over the Course of Centuries ..."