The Banishment of our Natural Parents, Adam and Eve, from Paradise - by DOMENICHINO - from Musιe des Beaux-Arts, Grenoble
|As a Man and a Woman, Adam and Eve, Cooperated-in our Ruin, To no avail, Adam and Eve try to 'Blame' Others for their Original-Sin against the All-Loving God. God Justly Banishes our Natural Parents, and Us their Children, from Paradise to our current existence, in this Valley-of-Tears. Henceforth their Lot is to be one of Pain and Hardship, and Man is Condemned to the Toilsome Task of Winning his Sustenance, from a Soil which, on his account, has been Cursed with Barrenness.|
As a Man and a Woman, Adam and Eve, Cooperated-in our Ruin,
so it was Proper, that another Man and another Woman should Cooperate-in our Redemption,
and these Two were Jesus, and His Mother Mary.
Salve Regina, Mater misericordiae,
Vita dulcedo et spes nostra salve.
Ad te clamamus exsules filii evae.
Ad te suspiramus gementes et flentes,
in hac lacrimarum valle.
Eja ergo advocata nostra,
illos tuos misericordes oculos ad nos converte.
Et Jesum benedictum fructum ventris tui
nobis post hoc exsilium ostende.
O clemens, O pia, O dulcis Virgo Maria.
Hail Holy Queen, Mother of Mercy,
Hail our Life, our Sweetness and our Hope.
To you do we Cry, Poor Banished Children-of-Eve,
to you do we Send-up our Sighs,
Mourning and Weeping in this Valley-of-Tears.
Turn then, most Gracious Advocate
your Eyes-of-Mercy, toward us.
And after this, our Exile,
Show us the Fruit of your Womb, Jesus.
O Clement, O Loving, O Sweet Virgin Mary.
|Nota Bene: Bible verses quoted in this Book, are from the English Douay-Rheims Translation, Commissioned-by the Catholic Church.|
"She is like the Merchant's Ship, she Bringeth her Bread from-Afar" - ("Facta est quasi navis institoris, de longe portans panem suum" Proverbs 31:14). Mary was this Fortunate Ship, that 'Brought' us Jesus Christ from Heaven, Who is the Living Bread, that 'Comes' down-from Heaven, to 'Give' us Eternal Life, as He Himself says: "I am the Living Bread, which came down from Heaven: if any Man Eat-of this Bread, he shall Live Forever" - ("Ego sum Panis vivus, qui de coelo descendi; si quis manducaverit ex hoc Pane, vivet in aeternum" John 6:51,2). And hence Richard-of-Saint-Laurence says, "that in the Sea of this World, All will be Lost, who are not Protected-by Mary"; and therefore he adds, "As often as we see ourselves in-Danger-of Perishing in the midst-of the Temptations and Contending Passions of this Life, let us have Recourse-to Mary, and Cry-out quickly, O Lady, Help us, Save us, if thou wilt not see us Perish" ("In mare mundi submergentur omnes illi, quos non suscipit Navis ista. Ideo, quoties videmus insurgents super nos fluctus ejus maris, clamare debemus ad Mariam: Domina! salva nos, perimus" De Laud. B. M. l. 11, c. 8).
Remark, by-the-by, that this Writer does not 'Scruple' to-Address these Words to Mary: "Save us, we Perish"; as does a certain Author already Noticed, and who 'Says', that we cannot 'Ask' Mary to Save us, as this Belongs-to God alone. But since a Culprit, Condemned-to-Death, can 'Beg' a Royal-Favorite to Save him, by 'Interceding' with the King, that his Life may be 'Spared'; why cannot we 'Ask' the Mother-of-God to Save us, by 'Obtaining' us Eternal Life? Saint-John-Damascene 'Scrupled'-not to 'Address' her in these Words: "Pure and Immaculate Virgin, Save me, and Deliver me from Eternal Damnation" - ("Regina immaculate et pura! Salva me, libera me ab aeterna damnatione" Paracl. In Deip.). Saint Bonaventure called Mary "the Salvation of those who Invoked her" - ("O Salus te invocantium!"). The Holy Church 'Approves' of the Invocation, by also Calling her the "Salvation-of the Weak" - ("Salus infirmorum"). And shall we 'Scruple' to 'Ask' her to Save us, when "the Way of Salvation is open-to None, Otherwise than Through Mary?" - ("Nemini, nisi per eam, patet aditus ad salutem" Paciucch. In Ps. lxxxvi. exc. 1) as a certain Author 'Remarks'. And before him, Saint Germanus had 'Said' the same thing, Speaking-of Mary: "No one is Saved, but Through thee" - ("Nullus est qui salvus fiat, nisi per te" De Zona Deip.).
But let us now see what else the Saints say-of the Need in-which we 'Are', of the Intercession-of the Divine Mother. The Glorious Saint Cajetan used to say, that we may Seek-for Graces, but shall never find them, without the Intercession-of Mary. This is Confirmed-by Saint Antoninus, who thus Beautifully Expresses himself: "Whoever Asks and Expects to Obtain Graces, without the Intercession of Mary, Endeavors-to Fly without Wings" - ("Qui petit sine ipsa duce, sine alis tentat volare" P. 4, tit. 15, c. 22, #9); for, as Pharaoh said to Joseph, the Land of Egypt is in thy Hands, and 'Addressed' all who came to him for Food, to-Joseph, "Go to Joseph" - ("Ite ad Joseph" Genesis 41:55), so does God 'Send' us to Mary, when we Seek-for Grace: "Go to Mary;" for "He has Decreed", says Saint Bernard, "that He will Grant no Graces, otherwise than by the Hands-of-Mary" - ("Totum nos habere voluit per Mariam" De Aquaed)." And thus", says Richard-of-Saint-Laurence, "our Salvation is in the Hands-of-Mary; so that we Christians may with much Greater Reason, Say of-her, than the Egyptians of-Joseph, Our Salvation is in thy Hands" - ("Salus nostra in manu Mariae est; ut ei dicere muito melius valeamus nos Christiani, quam dixerint AEgyptii Joseph: Salus nostra in manus tua est" (Gen. xlvii.25) De Laud. B. M. l. 2, c. 1). The Venerable-Raymond-Jordano repeats the same thing: "Our Salvation is in her Hands" - ("Salus nostra in manu illius est" Cont. de V. in prol.). Cassian 'Speaks' in still stronger-Terms. He says 'Absolutely', "that the Salvation of All, depends-on their being Favored and Protected by Mary" - ("Tota salus humani generic consistit in multitudine gratiae Mariae et favoris" Pelbart, Stell. l. 12, p. 1, a. 3). He who is Protected-by Mary, will be Saved; he who is not, will be Lost. Saint-Bernardine-of-Sienna thus 'Addresses' this Blessed Virgin: "O Lady, since thou art the Dispenser-of all Graces, and since the Grace-of-Salvation can only come Through thy Hands, our Salvation depends on thee" ("Tu Dispensatrix omnium gratiarum" Pro Fest. V. M. s. 13, a. 2, c. 3).
Therefore, Richard-of-Saint-Laurence had Good Reason for 'Saying', that "as we should Fall into the Abyss, if the Ground were Withdrawn-from under our Feet, so does a Soul, Deprived-of the Succor-of-Mary, First Fall-into Sin, and then into Hell" - ("Sic, subtracto nobis adjutorio Mariae, statim labimur in peccatum, et inde in infernum" De Laud. B. M. l. 8). Saint Bonaventure says, that "God will not Save us, without the Intercession-of Mary" - ("Ipse, sine ea, non salvabit te"). And that "as a Child cannot Live, without a Nurse to Suckle it, so no one can be Saved, without the Protection of Mary" - ("Quemadmodum infans, sine nutrice, non potest vivere; ita nec sine Domina nostra, potes habere salutem"). Therefore he 'Exhorts' us "to Thirst-after Devotion-to her, to Preserve it with Care, and never to Abandon it, until we have Received her Maternal Blessing in-Heaven" - ("Sitiat ergo anima tua ad ipsam; tene eam, nec dimitte, donec benedixerit tibi" Cont. in Psalt). "And whoever", exclaims Saint Germanus, "could know God, were it not for thee, O Most Holy Mary? who could be Saved? who would be Preserved from Dangers? who could Receive any Grace, were it not for thee, O Mother-of-God, O Full-of-Grace?"
The following are the Beautiful Words in which he 'Expresses' himself: "There is no one, O most Holy Mary, who can know God, but Through thee; no one who can be Saved or Redeemed, but Through thee, O Mother-of-God; no one who can be Delivered from Dangers but Through thee, O Virgin Mother; no one who Obtains Mercy, but Through thee, O Filled-with All Grace". And in another place, 'Addressing' her, he 'Says', "No one would be Free-from the Effects of the Concupiscence-of the Flesh and from Sin, unless thou didst Ppen the Way, to Him" - ("Nemo est, O Sanctissima, qui ad Dei notitiam venit, nisi per te, Nome qui salvus fiat, nisi per te, Dei Parens! Nemo liber a periculis, nisi per te, Virgo Mater! Emo donum Dei suscipit, nisi per te, gratia Plena. Nisi enim tu iter aperires, nemo spiritualis evaderet" In Dorm. V. M. s. 2).
And, as we have Access-to the Eternal Father, says Saint Bernard, only Through Jesus Christ, so have we Access-to Jesus Christ, only Through Mary: "By thee we have Access-to the Son, O Blessed Finder-of-Grace, Bearer-of-Life, and Mother-of-Salvation, that we may Receive Him, by thee, Who Through thee, was Given-to us" - ("Per te accessum habemus ad filium, O Inventrix gratiae, Mater salukis! Ut per te nos suscipiat, qui per te datus est nobis" De Adv. Dom. s. 2). This is the Reason, given-by the Saint, why Our Lord has 'Determined' that All shall be Saved-by the Intercession-of Mary; and therefore he Calls her the Mother-of-Grace, and of our Salvation.
"Then", asks Saint Germanus, "what will Become-of us? What Hope can we have of Salvation, if thou dost Abandon us, O Mary, who art the Life-of-Christians?" - ("Si tu nos deserueris, quid erit de nobis, O Vita Christianorum?" De Zona Deip.).
"But", says the Modern Author already 'Quoted', "if All Graces come Through Mary, when we Implore the Intercession of other Saints, they must have Recourse-to the Mediation-of-Mary. But that", he says, "no one Believes or ever Dreamed".
As to Believing it, I reply that in-that, there can be no Error or Difficulty. What Difficulty can there be in saying that God, in-order-to Honor His Mother, and having made her Queen-of-Saints, and Willing that All Graces shall be Dispensed-by her Hands, should also Will that the Saints should 'Address' themselves to her, to 'Obtain' Favors for their Clients?
And as to 'Saying', that no one ever 'Dreamed' of such a thing, I find that Saint Bernard, Saint Anselm, Saint Bonaventure, Suarez, and others, Expressly 'Declare' it to-be the Case. "In Vain", says Saint Bernard, "would a Person ask other Saints for a favor, if Mary did not 'Interpose' to Obtain it" - ("Frustra alios Sanctos oraret, quem ista non adjuvaret"). Some other Author, 'Explaining' the Words-of the Psalm: "All the Rich among the People, shall Entreat thy Countenance" - ("Vultum tuum deprecabuntur omnes divites plebes" Psalm 44:13), says, "that the Saints are the Rich, of that Great People of God, who, when they Wish to Obtain a Favor from God, for their Clients, Recommend themselves to Mary, and she immediately Obtains it". And Father Suarez correctly remarks, "that we Beg the Saints to be our Intercessors-with Mary, because she is their Queen and Sovereign Lady". "Amongst the Saints", he says, "we do not make use of one, to Intercede with the other, as all are of the same-order; but we do ask them to Intercede-with Mary, because she is their Sovereign and Queen" - ("Inter alios Sanctos non utimur uno ut intercessore ad alium, quia omnes sunt ejusdem ordinis; ad Virginem autem, tanquam ad Reginam et Dominam, alii adhibentur intercessors" De Inc. p. 2, d. 23, s. 3). And this is precisely what Saint Benedict 'Promised'-to Saint-Frances-of-Rome, as we read in Father Marchese; for he 'Appeared' to her, and 'Taking' her under his Protection, he 'Promised' that he would be her Advocate-with, the Divine Mother.
In Confirmation-of this, Saint Anselm 'Addresses' our Blessed Lady and says, "O Lady, whatever all the Saints, United-with thee, can Obtain, thou canst Obtain alone". "And why is this?" asks the Saint; "why is it that thou alone hast such Great Power? Ah, it is because thou art the Spouse-of-God; thou art the Universal Queen of Heaven and Earth. If thou dost not Speak for us, no Saint will Pray-for or Help us. But if thou Beginnest to Pray for us, then will all the Saints do the same, and Succor us" - ("Quod possunt omnes isti tecum, tu sola potes sine illis omnibus. Quare hoc potes? Quia Mater es Salvatoris nostril, Sponsa Dei, Regina coeli et terrae." Te tacente, nullus orabit, nullus juvabit. Te orante, omnes orabunt, omnes juvabunt" Orat. 45).
So that Father Segneri (Div. di. M. p. 1, c. 7, #4), in his "Devout-Client-of-Mary", Applying-with the Catholic Church the Words-of Ecclesiasticus to her, "I alone have Compassed the Circuit-of-Heaven" - ("Gyrum coeli circuivi sola" Ecclesiasticus 24:8), says, that "as the First Sphere, by its Motion, 'Sets' all the others in Motion, so it is when Mary Prays for a Soul; immediately, the Whole Heavenly Court begins to Pray with her". "Nay, more", says Saint Bonaventure, "whenever the Most Sacred Virgin goes-to God, to Intercede for us, she, as Queen, Commands all the Angels and Saints to Accompany her, and Unite their Prayers to hers" - ("Quando Sanctissima Virgo procedit ad Deum pro nobis deprecandum, imperat Angelis et Sanctis, ut eam comitentur, ut simul cum ipsa Altissimum pro nobis exorent" Paciucch. Super Sal. Ang. exc. 19).
And thus, Finally, do we Understand, Why the Holy Church 'Requires' that we should Salute and Invoke the Divine Mother, under the Glorious Title of "Our Hope" - ("Spes nostra! salve!"). The Impious Luther said, "that he could not endure that the Roman Church should call Mary, who is only a Creature, 'Our Hope'" - ("Ferre nequeo ut Maria dicatur Spes et Vita nostra"); "for, said he, "God Alone, and Jesus Christ as Our Mediator, is Our Hope: and God Curses those who Place their Hope in a Creature, according to the Prophet Jeremiah, 'Cursed be the Man that Trusteth in Man'" - ("Maledictus homo qui confidit in homine" Jeremiah 17:5). But the Church 'Teaches' us to 'Invoke' Mary on all Occasions, and to 'Call' her "Our Hope; Hail, Our Hope!" Whoever places his Confidence in a Creature, Independently-of God, he Certainly is Cursed by God; for God is the only Source and Dispenser-of every Good, and the Creature without God, is Nothing, and can 'Give' Nothing. But if Our Lord has so 'Disposed' it, as we have already 'Proved' that He has 'Done', that all Graces should Pass Through Mary, as by a Channel-of-Mercy, we not only Can, but Ought-to 'Assert' that she, by whose Means we Receive the Divine Graces, is Truly Our Hope.
Therefore Saint Bernard says, "that she is his Greatest Confidence, and the Whole Foundation of his Hope" - ("Filioli, haec mea maxima Fiducia est, haec tota ratio spei meae" De Aquaed.). Saint-John-Damascene says the same thing; for he thus 'Addresses' the Most Blessed Virgin: "O Lady, in thee have I Placed all my Hope; and with my Eyes fixed-on thee, from thee do I expect Salvation" - ("In te spem meam collocavi ex animo, et intentis oculis abs te pendeo" Paracl. In Deip.). Saint Thomas says, that "Mary is the Whole Hope of our Salvation" - ("Omnis Spes vitae" Exp. In Sal. Ang.), and Saint Ephrem, 'Addressing' her, says, "O Most Holy Virgin, Receive us under thy Protection, if thou wilt see us Saved, for we have no Hope of Salvation, but Through thy Means" - ("Nobis non est alia quam in te fiducia. O Virgo sincerissima! Sub alis tuae pietatis protιgι et custody nos" De Laud. Dei gen.).
Let us, then, in the Words-of Saint Bernard, "endeavor to Venerate this Divine Mother with the Whole Affection of our Hearts; for such is the Will-of-God, Who is Pleased that we should Receive every Gift, from her Hand" - ("Totis medullis cordium Mariam hanc veneremur; quia sic est voluntas ejus, qui totum nos habere voluit per Mariam" De Aquaed.). And therefore the Saint 'Exhorts' us, whenever we 'Desire' or 'Ask' for any Grace, to 'Recommend' ourselves to Mary, and to be Assured that we shall Receive it by her Means ("Quaeramus gratiam, et per Mariam quaeramus"); for he says, if thou dost not Deserve the Favor from God, Mary, who will 'Ask' it for thee, will 'Deserve' to 'Receive' it; "because thou wast Unworthy of the Gift, it was Bestowed on Mary, that Through her, thou mightest Receive all that thou hast" - ("Quia indignus eras cui donaretur, datum est Mariae, ut per illam acciperes quidquid haberes" In Viq. Nat. D. s. 3). The Saint then Advises us to Recommend all that we Offer-to God, to the Care-of Mary, be they Good Works or Prayers, if we Wish Our Lord to 'Accept' them. "Whatever thou mayest Offer to God, be sure to Recommend it to Mary, in order not to meet with a Repulse" - ("Quidquid Deo offerre paras, Mariae commendare memento, si non vis sustinere repulsam" De Aquaed.).
The Doctrine-of Mary's Dignity, as Mediatrix-of All Graces, is commonly Accepted-by Theologians today, and recent Pontiffs have occasionally Alluded-to it. We know that Benedict XIV has left these words on Record: "Mary is like a Celestial River, by which the Waters of all Graces and Gifts are Conveyed to Poor Mortals". Pius IX, in speaking-to the Bishops of the Whole World, made use of the Words-of Saint Bernard: "God Wills that every Grace should come-to us, Through her". In his Encyclical on the Devotion of the Rosary, Sept. 22, 1891, Pope Leo XIII says: "In a True and Natural Sense, may we say that from the Great Treasury-of-Graces that the Lord has Merited for us, nothing came to us, by the Will-of-God, except Through Mary". Pius X declares: "She is the Dispensatrix of the Graces that Jesus Christ has Merited for us by His Blood and His Death". The following are the Words-of Benedict XV: "It has pleased God to Grant us All Graces Through the Intercession of Mary". Again: "All the Graces which the Giver of all Good, Deigns to-Grant-to the Descendants-of Adam, are Dispensed to us, in the Disposition-of a Loving Providence, Through the Hands of the Blessed Virgin". And finally: "The Graces of all kinds, that we Receive from the Treasury of the Redemption, are Dispensed-by the Hands of the Sorrowful Virgin".
It is Worthy-of-Note, that the Last Four (4) Popes have 'Directed' special Attention to this Teaching, on the Blessed Virgin Mary. They refer to it Repeatedly, and thus place the Seal-of-Approval on the Authority of those of Former Times, who held the Doctrine, and particularly of Saint Alphonsus. On the strength-of these Testimonies, one can Unhesitatingly Subscribe to the Judgment-of the Apologist Bainvel, S.J.: "The Twofold Cooperation of Mary in the Work of the Redemption, First on-Earth by her Life, Prayer and Suffering, and then in-Heaven by her Prayer alone, is Sound Catholic Doctrine, beyond all Dispute, and Worthy-of being Defined, i.e. of being Raised-to the Dignity of an Article-of-Faith" (Dict. Apolog. D'Hales III. col. 301).
Father Jansen, C.SS.R. says that what the Supreme Teacher of the Church, proclaims-so loudly, Deserves to be made known not merely to the Students-of-Theology in Class-Rooms, but in Pulpit-and-Press, to the Faithful of the Whole World (Nederl. Katho. Stemmen 18 (1918) 273).
Amen, amen. Amen.