The Institution of the Eucharist - by JOOS van Wassenhove - from Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino
|My Soul, if you wish to Penetrate the
Depths of this Mystery, your Gaze must be Illumined by Love! You
need to See and Understand! Contemplate the Last Supper: see Jesus
Who knows that He will soon be Separated-from the Body of His
Humanity, and yet Wishing to be United to us Forever; Contemplate
the Love by which He Institutes this Sacrament which Permits Him to
be Corporeally and Forever United to Mankind. O Inextinguishable
Love! O Love of Christ! O Love of the Human Race! What a True
Furnace of Love! O Jesus, You already saw the Death which awaited
You; the Sorrows and Atrocious Tortures of the Passion were already
Breaking Your Heart, and yet You Offered Yourself to Your
Executioners, and Permitted them, by means of this Sacrament, to
Possess You Forever as an Eternal Gift, O You, Whose Delights are to
be with the Children of Men!
O my Soul, how can you Refrain from plunging yourself ever Deeper and Deeper into the Love of Christ, Who did not forget you in Life or in Death, but Who Willed to give Himself Wholly to you, and to Unite you to Himself Forever?
- St. Angela Foligno
In addition to being the Source of Christian Spirituality because it is a Source of Grace, the Eucharist also Helps us Grow in the Three (3) Theological Virtues of Faith, Hope and Charity. These Virtues are Essential to the Spiritual Life because they "Dispose Christians to Live in a Relationship with the Holy Trinity" (CCC 1812). They are called Theological because they Direct us to God. We might say that they are the Three (3) Dimensions - the Height, Width and Depth - in which the Christian Life is Lived.
THE SOURCE OF FAITH
Faith is the Virtue by which we Entrust ourselves - Mind and Will - to God, believing what He has Revealed, because of Who He is (CCC 143, 1814). How is the Eucharist the Source of Faith? Like all the Sacraments (CCC 1123), the Eucharist is a 'Sign' which Instructs us. It Nourishes and Strengthens our Faith, by what it Signifies: the Wisdom, Love and Power of God, Manifested to us by Christ in His Real Presence, and in His Sacrifice. In this Respect, the Eucharist is the Sacramental "Sign of the Covenant" Par-Excellence, beckoning us to Enter into Communion with God by Accepting in Faith, God's Saving Deeds on our behalf - Supremely, the Death and Resurrection of His Son. The Eucharist should move us to Deeper Faith, by reminding us what God has in fact done for us - Manifesting His Trustworthiness.
But the Eucharist also Fosters the Virtue of Faith, insofar as it Signifies the One (1) Faith of the Catholic Church. This Faith is Objectively Grounded in the Official Proclamation of the Word of God in the Eucharistic Liturgy, and Celebrated in the Eucharistic Sacrifice, Offered by those in Holy Orders who, possessing Apostolic Succession, in Communion with their Bishop, and the Successor of Peter, Legitimately exercise Apostolic Authority.
THE SOURCE OF HOPE
The Eucharist is also the Source of Hope. "Hope (the Catechism of the Catholic Church reminds us) is the Theological Virtue by which we Desire the Kingdom of Heaven and Eternal Life as our Happiness, placing our Trust in Christ's Promises, and Relying not on our own Strength, but on the Help of the Grace of the Holy Spirit" (CCC 1817). The Basis of this Hope is the Salvation Won-by the Death and Resurrection of Christ and the Gift of His Holy Spirit, Poured-out in our Hearts (Romans 5:5-11; 8:23-25; Titus 3:6-7), which is Sacramentally present in the Eucharist.
As an Efficacious Sign of Christ's Salvation, the Eucharist gives us Hope in God for the Grace to Live in His Friendship in this Life, and to Inherit Eternal Life in Heaven. The Eucharist Nourishes our Hope, at once Pointing Back-to God's Salvific Deeds, especially Jesus' Death and Resurrection, which provides the Firm Ground for our Hope; and Forward-to what we Hope for, the Coming of the Kingdom, and Eternal Life of Communion with the Triune God.
THE SOURCE OF CHARITY
Finally, the Eucharist is the Source of Charity. As Pope John Paul II has written: "Christian Life is Expressed in the Fulfilling of the Greatest Commandment, that is to say, in the Love of God and Neighbor, and this Love finds its Source in the Blessed Sacrament, which is commonly called the Sacrament of Love. The Eucharist signifies this Charity, and therefore recalls it, makes it present and at the same time, brings it about" (Dominicae Cenae, no. 5).
We have already considered how the Eucharist, Sacramentally Signifies and Makes-present the Love of God Manifested in Christ and in the Outpouring-of the Holy Spirit, and how the Eucharist is Christ Himself, Love Incarnate. But the Eucharist is also the Source of Charity, in that it may lead us to Love God and His Son Jesus in the Spirit. Seeing what God has done for us in Christ, Who is Present with us in the Eucharist, we should Love God in return, and in the Spirit, Pour-out our Hearts to Him through the Eucharistic Christ.
Through the Eucharist, then, we enter into a deeper Participation in the Life of the Triune God, Who is Charity itself (1John 4:16). In turn, this deepened Love for God leads to a Greater Love of Neighbor, for the sake of the Love of God, because "Whoever Loves God must also Love his Brother" (1John 4:21). We Love others because Christ First Loved us.
Furthermore, Christ's Eucharistic Offering of Himself "becomes of itself the School of Active Love for Neighbor", as Pope John Paul II has written, by Revealing to us "what Value each Person, our Brother or Sister, has in God's Eyes, if Christ offers Himself equally to each one, under the Species of Bread and Wine".
Finally, as the Source of Grace, the Eucharist is the Source of Charity, insofar as Grace is Necessary for Genuine Obedience to God's Commandments, without which we cannot Truly Love God (cf. 1John 5:3).
The Eucharist As The Summit Of Christian Spirituality
We have seen how the Eucharist is the Source of Christian Spirituality - how the Eucharist brings about the Christian Way of Life in us. We consider now how the Eucharist is the Summit or High-Point of Christian Spirituality or, as Saint Thomas Aquinas put it, "The Consummation of the whole Spiritual Life". In other words, how Christian Living Leads-up-to and Culminates-in our Participation in the Eucharist.
The Eucharist is the Summit of the Spiritual Life, in the sense that other Aspects of Christian Living, including the other Sacraments (CCC 1368), are Ordered-to the Eucharist - to Christ's Offering of Himself to the Father in the Spirit for us, and to our Participation in Christ's Offering. In other words, the same Profound Sacramental Link between the Sacrifice of the Cross and the Eucharist, that makes the Eucharist the Source of Christian Spirituality, also makes it the Summit or High-Point of Christian Spirituality.
Christ's Sacrifice, Our Sacrifice
As we have already seen, the Eucharistic Christ not only gives Himself to the Father for us, He is Offered to the Father by us in the Spirit, through the Indispensable Ministry of the Sacrificing Priest acting in Persona Christi - in the Person of Christ our High Priest Himself, and through our Union with Christ as Members of His Church. But, as also mentioned above, it is not only Christ Who is Offered to the Father in the Eucharist; the Church also offers Herself in-and-through Her Union with Christ in the Spirit:
The Self-offering of the Church in the Eucharist is Central to the Church's Identity as a Priestly People. This is, in fact, an important way in which the Faithful exercise their Baptismal Priesthood, Offering the Sacrifice of themselves in Christ.
Moreover, the Eucharistic Offering of the Church is both Corporate and Objective, and Individual and Subjective. Corporately and Objectively, the Church's Offering of Herself is Constituted by the Action of the Ministerial Priest who, precisely because he Acts in Persona Christi Capitis (in the Person of Christ, the Head of the Church), also Acts in Persona Ecclesiae (in the Person of the Church) and in the Name of the Church (CCC 1552-1553). The Priest represents the Church before God, because he represents Christ, Who is Head and Bridegroom of the Church.
At the same time, Members of the Church Offer themselves Individually and Subjectively in the Eucharistic Liturgy, insofar as they Unite themselves by Intention and Action, with the Eucharistic Offering of Christ's Sacrifice. In other words, they make Christ's Offering, for them as Individuals, their own Offering of themselves, through Christ. They Surrender their Minds and Hearts, their very lives, to God, through Christ's Act of Self-surrender, made-present on the Altar. We have already considered the Eucharist as the Source of the Spiritual Life, which we noted is a Life of Grace, lived through the Theological Virtues of Faith, Hope and Charity. Since the Eucharist is also the Summit of Christian Spirituality, the Individual and Subjective Offering of ourselves in the Eucharist, also necessarily entails the Basics of Christian Spirituality - Repentance from Sin and Death to Self, as well as a Positive Growth in the Life of Grace and the Theological Virtues. We look now at these things from the Vantage Point of the Eucharist as their Summit or High-Point, rather than their Source.
The Need for Repentance
Since all the various ways we give ourselves to God are Directed-to the Eucharist, this includes Repentance from Sin. Consequently, if we would Offer ourselves to God through the Eucharist, and Receive from Him the Bread of Life, we must pass through the Door of Penance. To enter into Communion with the All-Holy God through the Eucharist, we must, following the General Pattern of the Spiritual Life, undergo Purgation. As Pope Pius XII wrote:
When Christ came, Proclaiming the Kingdom of God, He Preached 'Conversion' and 'Faith'. "Repent", He said, "and Believe in the Gospel" (Mark 1:15). Not surprisingly, then, there exists a Special Link between the Sacrament of Penance and the Eucharist. Pope John Paul II has written of this:
The Eucharist, then, is the High-Point of Repentance because it is the Supreme Sacrament of Calvary. All other Acts of Penance prepare for our Participation in the Eucharistic Sacrifice, our Supreme Rejection-of Sin, and turning toward Christ, and Communion with Him.
Offering Ourselves in Faith, Hope and Charity
But Christian Spirituality is not simply a Life of Repentance and Purgation; as we have seen, it also includes Growth-in Faith, Hope and Charity. So, too, our Eucharistic Offering, as the Summit or High-Point of Christian Spirituality, involves the Theological Virtues. Indeed, Acts of Faith, Hope and Charity are Specific Ways in which we Offer ourselves to God in the Eucharist, thereby entering into Communion with Him through the Highest Act of Sacrifice possible.
Faith, as we have seen, is an Offering of oneself - the Response of Man to God's Gracious Initiative in Christ - in which one Freely Submits Intellect and Will to God and His Word (CCC 143, 1814). In the Eucharist, Man Submits by Faith to the Divine Word by which Bread and Wine become the Body and Blood of Christ, and indeed to the Whole Catholic Faith of which the Eucharist is the Greatest Sacramental Sign, because it is Christ Himself. This is at least One of the Ways in which we can speak of the Eucharist as the "Mystery of Faith".
Furthermore, in Receiving Holy Communion in Faith, One bows before this Mystery which only the Person of Faith Perceives: "Unless you eat the Flesh of the Son of Man and drink His Blood, you shall not have Life within you ... For My Flesh is True Food and My Blood True Drink" (John 6:53, 55). In this way, a Person Offers himself to Christ in Faith, saying, "Yes, Lord. I Believe what You said".
Most importantly, Man's Act of Faith is Supremely Realized in Believing and Receiving what God has done for him in Christ on Calvary. And God's Saving Act in Christ is Supremely Realized in the Eucharist, which makes Calvary present.
But the Faithful's Eucharistic Self-Offering is also an Offering of Hope. Again we note that, by the Virtue of Hope, a Believer Trusts-in God's Promised Grace in the Eucharist, and that "He Who has begun a Good Work ... will bring it to Completion".
In Hope, the Believer acknowledges God's Sufficiency, and his own Insufficiency. Offering oneself to God in the Eucharist is a Profound Act of Hope in that the Eucharist, as Christ Himself, is God's more-than-Sufficient Provision for our Sins. Indeed, it is only because of Christ, Who as Priest and Victim is present in the Eucharist, that we can Hope that any Offering of ourselves will be Acceptable to God. There remains no Greater Means by which we Hope in God than by the Eucharistic Sacrifice.
To Unite ourselves to Christ in the Eucharist, then, is to acknowledge our own Insufficiency and our Reliance on God's Goodness to bring us to Eternal Life with Him. Through the Eucharist, which is "the Pledge of Future Glory" (CCC 1402-1405, 1419), we Hope in God to Provide us with the Grace necessary to be Faithful here-and-now, and to attain Eternal Life with Him in the Age-to-come. As the Catechism of the Catholic Church has it: "There is no Surer Pledge or Clearer Sign of this Great Hope in the New Heavens and the New Earth 'in which Righteousness Dwells' than the Eucharist" (CCC 1405).
Perhaps most importantly, the Eucharist is the Summit of Christian Spirituality because it is the "Sacrament of Love". Primarily, of course, this means it is the Sacrament of God's Love for us. At the same time, there is a sense in which the Eucharist, by God's Gracious Work in us, is the Sacrament of our Love for God, and for our Neighbor.
Through Charity, Man embraces God Himself, Who is Love. By Offering himself to God, through his Union with Him in the Eucharist, Man's Love for God reaches a Climax: he gives himself to God in the only way possible - through the Father's Own Son, Jesus. In this way, God's Gracious Invitation to Communion with Human Beings, is answered through Communion with the Eucharistic Christ.
"Greater Love has no Man than this", the Master Taught, "than that he lay down his Life for his Friends". Through the Eucharist, we Join ourselves to Christ and "lay down" our Lives in Loving Union with Jesus' Supreme Act of Obedience to the Father's Will. As Christ Prayed in Gethsemane that the Father's Will be done, so we, in Uniting our Lives to Christ in the Eucharist, say to the Father, "Thy Will be done". As Jesus was Obedient "unto Death", as an expression of His Love for the Father and for us, in the Eucharist we participate in Christ's Love of His Father, Surrendering ourselves to the Father's Will through Jesus, by Surrendering our Wills "unto Death" of ourselves.
But Charity is not Offered to only God in the Eucharist; Love for one another is also Expressed and Realized therein. Surrendering our Wills to God in Charity means Wanting to Please Him - to do what He asks. And what, after the First Great Commandment, does He ask of us? "You shall Love your Neighbor as yourself". Our Eucharistic Sacrifice, then, must include the Sacrifice of Ourselves in Love of, and Service to our Neighbor, because, as we saw earlier, whoever Loves God must also Love his Neighbor (1John 4:21).
Love of Neighbor means, among other things, that we offer Jesus' Great Prayer of Love to the Father, not only for ourselves, but for others - for those Visibly United with the Church and for others as well, Living or Dead. The Christian Life of Intercession for others is Supremely Expressed and Realized in the Eucharist, the Greatest Prayer that can be Offered, and the Sacramental Representation of that Sacrifice by which all other Prayer is Effectual.
The Eucharist, then, is Supremely the Sacrament in which we as Members of Christ's Mystical Body are United in Faith, Hope and Charity. We are United by Faith, Hope and Charity with Christ in the Eucharist. And we are United by Faith, Hope and Charity in Christ through the Eucharist, with one another.
In this way, as Members of Christ and one another, we become "One Body, One Spirit in Christ", sharing Imperfectly on Earth in the Heavenly Liturgy and in that Communion with God, which is the Goal of the Christian Life. Or to put it another way, the Eucharist is the Earthly Anticipation of the Eschatological Wedding Supper of the Lamb, when Christ and His Espoused Church, fully experience the "One Flesh" Reality of their Spousal and Corporeal Union.
Let us summarize what we have considered. The Eucharist is both the "Source and Summit of Christian Spirituality". It is the Source of Christian Spirituality in that, as Christ Himself and as the Sacramental representation of Christ's Sacrifice on the Cross, the Eucharist is God's Gift of Himself in Christ, through the Spirit to us. We, as Members of Christ's Church, receive this Gift by Grace and, through Grace, grow in Communion with God by Turning-from Sin, and Increasing in Faith, Hope and Charity, to which the Eucharist, as a Sacramental Sign, gives rise in us.
At the same time, the Eucharist is the Summit of Christian Spirituality because, as the Greatest Sacramental sharing in Christ's Sacrifice, it is the Greatest Gift of ourselves in Christ, Corporately and Individually, to the Father by the Spirit. As Individual Members of Christ's Mystical Body/Bride, the Church, our Eucharistic Self-donation includes Death to ourselves, and Repentance from Sin, and is made complete through our Submission to God in Faith, Hope and Charity, by which we are United to Christ's Eucharistic Sacrifice.
Pondering, and making our own, these Great Truths about the Eucharist in the Christian Life, should Illuminate our Spiritual Path and give us more Reasons to Love the Eucharist, and in this way, help us to Grow-closer to God, and to each other in Christ. Thus will we know evermore deeply, that through the Eucharist, we receive from the Father the Gift of Himself in His Son, and that in the "Spirit-inspired" Loving Response, we Join ourselves to the Son's Gift of Himself, back to the Father.