The Supernatural Organism/Order
'Your Ticket/Highway to Heaven'

[Mortal Sin destroys your Ticket-to-Heaven]

The Madonna of Carmel and the Souls of Purgatory - by TIEPOLO, Giovanni Battista - from Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan

The Souls in Heaven, the Church Triumphant, intercede to God on behalf of the Souls in Purgatory, the Church Suffering. Our Blessed Mother in Heaven, the 'Throne of Mercy' and 'Queen of the Angels', takes great delight in sending her Angels to release those Souls mercifully pardoned by her Son Jesus. Although depicted with Bodies, members of the Church Triumphant and Suffering actually have no Bodies, and will not receive their Glorified Bodies until the Final Judgment at the World's End. Currently, there are only Two (2) known Bodies in Heaven, belonging to Jesus Christ and His Blessed Mother. Popular speculation attributes a Third Body belonging to Saint Joseph, based on God's Commandment to 'Honor thy Father and Mother'. Jesus will never be outdone by Man in bestowing Honor on His parents.


Supernatural Organism/Order
(Resides in the Essence of the Soul)

Human Being/Person
(A Unity (1) of Body and Soul)




(Dominant Partner)

Supernatural Grace/Infused Virtues and Gifts of the Holy Spirit

Man is born a Rational Creature, with Body and Soul, into the Natural Order.
God First elevates Man to the Supernatural Order via the Sacrament of Baptism, which infuses Sanctifying Grace into the Essence of the Soul. The other Six (6) Sacraments can then elevate the Soul even Higher.
The Supernatural Order is the Ensemble of Effects exceeding the Powers of the Created Universe and Gratuitously produced directly by God for the purpose of raising the Rational Creature above its Natural Sphere to a God-like Life and Destiny.
Mortal Sin destroys/kills Man's entire Supernatural Organism. Man is no-longer a Temple of God. God is gone & resides no-longer in the Soul.
Only God can raise the Soul back-to-life from the Dead, via the Sacrament of Penance.



dovesmlc.gif (3961 bytes) The Supernatural Organism - Part IV of V

by Father Jordan Aumann, O.P.

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Father Jordan Aumann, O.P. former Director of the Institute of Spirituality at the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas in Rome, is an honorary professor of the University of Santo Tomas, Manila, where he has been giving special courses in Spirituality since 1977.

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The Gifts of the Holy Spirit

Elements - Supernatural Organism

Subject: Soul
Formal Principle: Sanctifying Grace
Faculties/Powers: Infused Virtues and Gifts of the Holy Spirit
Operations: Acts of the Virtues and Gifts

In general usage, a Gift signifies anything that one person gives to another out of Liberality and with Benevolence. We say "out of Liberality" to signify that on the part of the Giver a Gift excludes any notion of Debt or Obligation. And we say "with Benevolence" to signify the Love that prompts the Gift. Nevertheless, the notion of a Gift does not exclude Gratitude on the part of the one receiving the Gift; even more, it sometimes demands the Good Use of the Gift, depending on the Nature of the Gift and the intention of the Giver, as when one gives something in order that the Receiver be Perfected by its use. Such are the Gifts that God bestows on His Creatures.

The First Great Gift of God is the Holy Spirit, Who is the very Love by which God Loves Himself and Loves us. The Holy Spirit is, therefore, the First Gift of God, not only because He is the Substantial Love in the Intimate Life of the Trinity, but also because He dwells in us through Sanctifying Grace. From this First Gift proceed all other Gifts of God. In the last-analysis, whatever God gives to His Creatures, both in the Supernatural and in the Natural Order, is a completely Gratuitous Effect of His Liberal and Infinite Love.


Existence of the Gifts

The existence of the Gifts of the Holy Spirit can be known to us only through Revelation, since they are Supernatural Realities that completely Transcend the Light of Natural Reason. Saint Thomas begins with this supposition in the Treatise on the Gifts of the Holy Spirit in the Summa Theologica, and says that in the Doctrine on the Gifts we should follow the Mode of Speaking as found in Sacred Scripture, where they are Revealed to us.

The classical text of Isaiah is usually quoted as the Scriptural Foundation for the Doctrine on the Gifts of the Holy Spirit: "There shall come forth a Shoot from the Stump of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of His Roots. And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon Him, the Spirit of Wisdom and Understanding, the Spirit of Counsel and Might, the Spirit of Knowledge and the Fear of the Lord. And His delight shall be in the Fear of the Lord" (Isaiah 11:1-3).

This text is clearly Messianic and properly refers only to the Messiah. Nevertheless, the Fathers of the Church and the Church herself have extended the meaning to the Faithful of Christ in virtue of the Universal Principle of the Economy of Grace that Saint Paul enunciated: "For those whom He foreknew He also predestined to be conformed to the Image of His Son, in order that He might be the First-Born among many brethren" (Romans 8:29). From this it is inferred that whatever Perfection is found in Christ, our Head, if it is Communicable, is found also in the members United to Him through Grace. And it is evident that the Gifts of the Holy Spirit pertain to Communicable Perfections, if we bear in mind the need we have of them. Hence, we may rightly conclude that the Seven (7) Spirits that the Prophet saw descend and rest upon Christ are also the Patrimony of all those who are United to Him in Charity.

In addition to this text, which the Fathers and the Church have interpreted as a clear allusion to the Gifts of the Holy Spirit, authors are wont to cite other texts from the Old and New Testaments. However, the Doctrine on the Gifts of the Holy Spirit rests almost exclusively on the text from Isaiah.

The Teaching of the Church is explicit in the Liturgy. In the Divine Office for Pentecost Sunday, the Hymn at Evening Prayer addresses the Holy Spirit as follows: "Thou Who art Sevenfold in Thy Grace"; and in the Prayer for the Feast the Church asks God to "pour out the Gifts of the Spirit on all Mankind". In the Sequence for the Mass of Pentecost we sing: "On the faithful, who adore and confess You, evermore in Your Sevenfold Gifts descend". Lastly, in the administration of the Sacrament of Confirmation, the Bishop extends his hands over those to be Confirmed and Prays:

All-powerful God, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, by Water and the Holy Spirit You freed Your sons and daughters from Sin, and gave them New Life. Send Your Holy Spirit upon them to be their Helper and Guide. Give them the Spirit of Wisdom and Understanding, the Spirit of Right Judgment and Courage, the Spirit of Knowledge and Reverence. Fill them with the Spirit of Wonder and Awe in Your Presence. We ask this through Christ our Lord. Amen.

Trent.jpg (80872 bytes) The Catechism of the Council of Trent says that "from these Gifts of the Holy Spirit .... we derive the Rules for Christian Living, and through them we are able to know whether the Holy Spirit dwells in us". In his Encyclical, Divinum Illud Munus, Pope Leo XIII Recalls and Reaffirms the Traditional Teaching of the Church concerning the Gifts of the Holy Spirit:

More than this, the Just Man, that is to say, he who lives the Life of Divine Grace and Acts by the fitting Virtues as by means of Faculties, has need of those Seven Gifts which are Properly Attributed to the Holy Spirit. By means of these Gifts the Soul is Furnished and Strengthened so as to be able to Obey more Easily and Promptly His Voice and Impulse. Wherefore, these Gifts are of such Efficacy that they lead the Just Man to the Highest Degree of Sanctity; and of such Excellence that they continue to exist even in Heaven, though in a more Perfect Way. By means of these Gifts, the Soul is Excited and Encouraged to seek after and attain the Evangelical Beatitudes which, like the flowers that come forth in the springtime, are signs and harbingers of Eternal Beatitude.

The Number of the Gifts presents Two (2) Principal Difficulties: (1) in Sacred Scripture the Number Seven (7) is classically interpreted to signify a certain Indefinite Plenitude; (2) in the text of Isaiah only Six (6) distinct Gifts are enumerated, for the Gift of Fear is mentioned Twice.

Some Exegetes think that the text of Isaiah refers to an Indefinite Plenitude and therefore to more than Seven (7) Gifts of the Holy Spirit. Theologians who accept this Exegesis will likewise hold for an Indefinite Number of Gifts.

An Indefinite Plenitude may refer to a Number that is left Undetermined, or it may signify a definite Number that contains all possible applications. It is this Second Sense that Saint Thomas seems to accept, for he says that "it is evident that these Gifts extend to everything to which the Moral and Intellectual Virtues also extend". Consequently, just as the Seven (7) Infused Virtues suffice for all the needs of the Christian Life, but admit of a certain Indefinite Plenitude (especially the Moral Virtues, which can be divided into Integral, Subjective, and Potential Parts), so also it would seem logical to say that the Gifts are Seven (7) in Number, but admit of an Indefinite Plenitude because they Perfect the Infused Virtues. Therefore, the Indefinite Plenitude can be understood as a determined Number of Gifts possessing Multiple Modalities.

Various explanations have been offered for the omission of the Gift of Piety in the text of Isaiah, but it is explicitly mentioned in the Patristic Tradition, in the Official Teachings of the Church, and in the Unanimous Teaching of Theologians. To prescind from this Weight of Authority because of certain Textual Obscurities would seem to be unwarranted. Many things formally revealed in Sacred Scripture did not appear in their fullness except through the Interpretation of the Fathers and the Magisterium of the Church. Whatever the text of Isaiah, Saint Paul describes the Reality when he writes to the Romans: "All who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God. You did not receive a Spirit of Slavery leading you back into fear, but a Spirit of Adoption through which we cry out, 'Abba!' (that is, 'Father'). The Spirit Himself gives Witness with our spirit that we are children of God" (Romans 8:14-16).


The Nature of the Gifts

Saint Thomas studies the Metaphysical Nature of the Gifts of the Holy Spirit by asking whether they are Habits, in order to determine the Proximate Genus in the essential Definition of the Gifts. The reply is in the 'Affirmative', and Theologians of all Schools hold for the same response, with few exceptions.

Two (2) Objections have been raised against the Classification of the Gifts as Habits. Their solution will enable us to see more clearly the Nature of the Gifts.

First Error: For a Person to be moved by the Inspiration or Instinct of the Holy Spirit, an Actual Grace suffices. Therefore, the Gifts are not Habits but Actual Graces.

To this Error we respond that insofar as the Supernatural Movement proceeds from the Holy Spirit, it could be classified as an Actual Grace. On the part of the Soul, however, a distinction is necessary. If the Holy Spirit Acts upon the Soul by Bestowing some Grace by way of an Impulse (and such a Grace can be offered even to Sinners) or as a Charism (Gratia Gratis Data), these Graces, as received, are also Actual Graces. But if the Holy Spirit's Action on the Soul requires a Previous Disposition so that the Soul may be moved Easily and Promptly, then the Soul needs Habits that can be Actuated in a Supernatural Mode, and such are the Gifts of the Holy Spirit. Moreover, it is commonly taught by Theologians that the Gifts are the Perfection of the Infused Virtues; therefore, the Gifts must, like the Virtues, be Operative Habits.

Second Error: It is objected that the Holy Spirit is an Infinite Agent of Operation and needs no Previous Disposition on the part of the Soul. Therefore the Gifts are not Habits.

To this Error we reply that we have already admitted that the Holy Spirit can Act on a Soul, however and whenever He wishes. But the Ordinary Working of Divine Providence is Smooth and Connatural. Moreover, we are faced with the fact of the Existence of the Seven (7) Gifts of the Holy Spirit as Infused Habits, as we have already seen.


The Gifts and the Infused Virtues

There are Numerous Characteristics common to both the Gifts and the Virtues. The Principal Ones are as follows:

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) They are Generically the same, because both are Operative Habits.

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) They have the same Efficient Cause, namely, God, and therefore they are both Infused Supernatural Habits.

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) They have the same Subject of Inhesion: the Human Faculties.

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) They have the same Material Object: all Moral Matter.

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) They have the same Final Cause: the Supernatural Perfection of Man, Incipient in this World and Consummated in the World to come.

The differences between the Gifts and the Virtues are likewise Numerous, but we can list them briefly in a Series of Statements.

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) The Motor Cause of the Infused Virtues is Human Reason - Reason Illumined by Faith and Prompted by an Actual Grace. The Gifts Operate under the Impetus of the Holy Spirit, Who Actuates the Gifts by Direct-Contact. For that reason, the Habits of the Infused Virtues can be used when we wish, presupposing an Actual Grace, but the Gifts of the Holy Spirit Operate only when the Holy Spirit so desires.

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) Because the Infused Virtues function under the Direction and Control of Reason Illumined by Faith, their Operations are restricted to a Human Mode of Action. The Gifts, on the other hand, have the Holy Spirit as their Motor Cause; therefore they Operate in a Divine or Supernatural Mode.

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) In the exercise of the Infused Virtues, the Soul is Fully Active; its Acts are produced in a Human Manner or Mode, and the Soul is Fully Conscious that it works when and how it pleases. The Exercise of the Gifts is entirely different. The Holy Spirit is the unique Motor Cause of the Gifts; the Soul is Receptive, though Conscious and Free. Thus we preserve Freedom and Merit under the Operation of the Gifts, but the Soul merely Seconds the Divine Motion, which belongs entirely to the Holy Spirit.

Such are the Principal Differences between the Infused Virtues and the Gifts of the Holy Spirit. The First One establishes the Radical and Specific differences between the Virtues and the Gifts; the others are logical consequences of the First One.


Necessity of the Gifts

The Gifts of the Holy Spirit are in no sense Extraordinary or purely Charismatic Graces. They are given with Sanctifying Grace and form part of the Supernatural Organism. Moreover, the Gifts are necessary for the Perfection of the Infused Virtues, and also for Salvation.

First of all, if the Gifts are said to Perfect the Virtues, this signifies that even the Infused Virtues are subject to Imperfection.

Now there are Five (5) Principal Reasons or Occasions of Imperfection in any given Habit or Virtue:

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) When a Habit does not attain its complete Material Object. Such is the case of students of Theology who have not yet studied certain Tracts. They know something of Theology, and they have the Habit of Theology, but Incompletely and Imperfectly.

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) When the Habit lacks the Intensity by which it should attain its Object. For example, the student who has gone over an entire assignment, but Superficially and Carelessly.

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) When the Habit is Weakly Rooted in the Subject (e.g., through Lack of Sufficient Use).

These Three (3) Imperfections can be found in the Infused Virtues but can be corrected by the Virtues themselves. They do not need the Influence of the Gifts to be extended to the Total Object of the Virtue, to increase in Intensity, or to Multiply their Acts.

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) When there is an Intrinsic Imperfection that pertains to the Nature of the Habit itself. This occurs, for example, in the Habit of Faith (of things not seen) and Hope (of things not yet possessed). Neither the Virtues themselves nor the Gifts can Correct these Imperfections without destroying the Virtues in question.

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) Because of the Disproportion between the Habit and the Subject in which it resides. This is precisely the case with the Infused Virtues. They are Supernatural Habits, but the Subject in which they are received is the Human Faculties. Consequently, on being received into the Soul, the Infused Virtues Operate in a Human Mode. They accommodate themselves to the Psychological Operations of Man. This is why the Infused Virtues do not give Facility in Operation; that is provided by the Acquired Virtues.

Now, if we possess Imperfectly the Habits of the Infused Virtues, the Acts that proceed from them will also be Imperfect unless some Superior Agent intervenes to Perfect them. This is the purpose of the Gifts of the Holy Spirit. Moved and Regulated, not by Human Reason, as are the Virtues, but by the Holy Spirit, they bestow on the Virtues, and especially the Theological Virtues, that Divine Atmosphere that they need in order to develop all their Supernatural Virtuality.

The Theological Virtues give us a Participation in the Supernatural Knowledge that God has of Himself (Faith) and of His very Love of Himself (Charity), and make us desire Him as our Supreme Good (Hope). These Lofty Objects, absolutely Transcendent and Divine, are necessarily constrained to a Modality that is Human, so long as they remain under the Rule and Control of Reason, even though Enlightened by Faith. They demand a Regulation or Rule that is also Divine - that of the Gifts.

This Argument is also Valid for the Infused Moral Virtues. Although they do not Transcend the Rule of Reason as regards their Immediate Objects, they are Directed to a Supernatural End and receive from Charity their Form and their Life in that Transcendent Order. Therefore, to be Perfect, they must receive a Divine Mode that will Adapt and Accommodate them to this Orientation to the Supernatural End. Therefore, the Gifts embrace all the Matter of the Infused Virtues, both Theological and Moral.

Secondly, the Necessity of the Gifts for Salvation is a Logical Consequence of the need of the Gifts for the Perfection of the Infused Virtues. Saint Thomas Aquinas gives the following Theological Proof:

The Gifts are Perfections by which a person is disposed to be amenable to the Promptings of God. Hence in those matters where the Promptings of Reason do not suffice and there is need for the Prompting of the Holy Spirit, there is consequently need for a Gift.

Now Human Reason is Perfected by God in Two Ways: First, with its Natural Perfection, namely, the Natural Light of Reason; Secondly, with a Supernatural Perfection, the Theological Virtues. And though the latter Perfection is greater than the former, the former is possessed by us in a more Perfect Manner than the latter; for we have the former in our Complete Possession, but we possess the latter Imperfectly, because we know and Love God Imperfectly ....

Accordingly, in matters subject to Human Reason and directed to our Connatural End, we can work through the Judgment of our Reason; and if we receive help even in these things by way of Special Promptings from God, it will be out of God's Superabundant Goodness .... But in matters directed to the Supernatural End, to which Reason moves insofar as it is Imperfectly Informed by the Theological Virtues, the Movement of Reason does not suffice; there must be present in addition the Prompting and Movement of the Holy Spirit. This is in accord with Romans 8:14: "All who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God"; and Psalm 143:10 states: "May Your good Spirit guide me on level ground"; because no one can ever receive the Inheritance of the Blessed unless he be led and moved thither by the Holy Spirit. Therefore, in order to accomplish this End, it is necessary to have the Gifts of the Holy Spirit.

Some Theologians have considered this Doctrine excessive, but that is because they confuse the question de jure with the question de facto. [de jure is an expression that means "concerning law", as contrasted with de facto, which means "concerning fact"]  It is true that many are Saved without any Operation of the Gifts of the Holy Spirit, but never without the Habits of the Gifts. On the other hand, the Actuation of the Gifts is Morally and sometimes Physically necessary in order to Preserve Grace, and in this case the Actuation of the Gifts would be necessary for Salvation. The reason is the Insufficiency of Human Reason, even Enlightened by Faith, to lead us to the Supernatural End without Obstructions. But there is still another reason, based on the Corruption of Human Nature as a Consequence of Original Sin. The Infused Virtues do not reside in a Sound Nature, but in a Nature inclined to Evil, and although the Virtues have Sufficient Power to conquer all Temptations opposed to them, they cannot de facto overcome some of them without the Help of the Gifts, especially the Violent Temptations that arise unexpectedly. In those circumstances in which Resistance or a Fall is a Decision of the Moment, a person must Act Quickly, as if by a Supernatural Instinct, that is, under the Influence and Movement of the Gifts of the Holy Spirit.


The Gifts in Particular

The difficulty in establishing an Exact Correlation between the Virtues and the Gifts is Twofold. First, the Virtues cover such a wide range of Human Acts that One (1) Virtue may relate to Several Gifts; for example, the Virtue of Faith relates to both Understanding and Knowledge. Second, some of the Gifts, such as Knowledge, holysprt.jpg (34054 bytes) Counsel, and Fear of the Lord, apply to more than One (1) Virtue; thus, Fear of the Lord relates to the Virtues of Hope and Temperance. We shall divide the Gifts according to the Faculties in which they reside, and describe the Function of each Gift. Then, in Treating of the Virtues in particular, we shall discuss briefly the Gift or Gifts that Perfect each Virtue.

Two (2) Important Points should be stressed before we discuss the Gifts in particular. First, our Participation in the Divine Life is not a Transitory thing; rather, we are meant, through Sanctifying Grace, to share in a Permanent manner in the very Life and Nature of God, beginning here in Time and continuing through all Eternity in Glory. Moreover, our Operations under Grace are meant to become Connatural to us and for that reason we receive the Infused Virtues and the Gifts of the Holy Spirit as Habits in the Original Sense of the Latin Word Habitus. When we speak of the Movement or Instinctus of the Holy Spirit in relation to the Gifts, we are referring to the Actuation of the Gifts, but the Gifts as Habits are our possession so long as we remain in Grace.

Second, the Gifts of the Holy Spirit, unlike the Infused Virtues, Operate in a Supernatural Mode or Manner. The reason for this is that even our Highest Virtues, the Theological Virtues, Operate Imperfectly in us. Precisely because they Function under our Direction, their Mode of Operation is always Human and hence Imperfect. The Gifts of the Holy Spirit, therefore, are not simply Emergency Measures used by the Holy Spirit when we are in Special Difficulty, they are the Means by which an individual attains the "Divinization" that is the goal of Sanctification. The Supernatural Modality of the Gifts must be kept in mind, especially when we discuss the Gifts in relation to the Virtues, for we may easily overlook the fact that though the Names are sometimes identical or the Material Objects are the same, the Operation of the Gifts is always a Movement in which the Holy Spirit is the Primary Agent.


The Holy Spirit leads us in Two Ways

Via the Infused Virtues

Via Gifts of the Holy Spirit

Seven (7) Theological and Moral Virtues infused at Baptism. Seven (7) Gifts of the Holy Spirit infused at Confirmation
The Motor Cause of the Infused Virtues is Human Reason. The Motor Cause of the Gifts is the Holy Spirit
We left to Act completely on our own with Great Difficulty. Enables us to accomplish the Infused Virtues with Greater Ease.
In the Activity of the Infused Virtues, the Natural Powers of the Soul (Intellect and Will) are in control. In each Virtue the Human Mind deliberates and the Will chooses the way one will go. In the Activity of the Gifts, on the other hand, the Soul Acts in a Divine Way, for it no longer moves itself, but is moved by a Divine Instinct. The Soul's Activity is that of Acceptance.
We set these Acts in Motion under the Impulse/Inspiration of Actual Grace. The Intellect and Will are in control. Renders the Faculties of the Soul Docile and Disposed to react more Promptly and Easily to  Actual Grace. God is in control.
We are aided only by the Infused Virtue itself. The Holy Spirit leads by means of the Gifts.
We do not have perfect possession of the Virtues because of the Inherent Weakness in our Fallen Nature. The Infused Virtues - Indispensable as they are - will not be enough in every situation. When the Holy Spirit leads by means of the Gifts, our Human Weaknesses are overcome, the task is accomplished with Greater Ease, and the Infused Virtues are exercised more Perfectly.
The Gifts of the Holy Spirit are compared to the Sails of a Boat that catch the Divine Inspirations, and carry us along as the Holy Spirit leads us where and when He Wills; we consenting to His Action. As Grace grows, these Gifts become more-active, and the Holy Spirit takes a Greater-Role in the direction of our lives.

The Gifts render the Intellect and Will docile-and-receptive to the Inspirations of the Holy Spirit.

The Soul acting under the Gifts is Free, and Merits in each Act.


Like the Virtues, the Gifts of the Holy Spirit can be divided according to the Faculties through which they Operate, and then specifically by their Formal Objects. The Human Faculties are classified in general as either Cognitive, relating to Knowledge, or Appetitive, relating to Orexis. Now, Human Knowledge may be either Speculative or Practical, while Human Orexis may involve the Operations of the Will or the Emotions. And just as there are Virtues to Perfect the Operations of all these Faculties, so there are Gifts of the Holy Spirit to Perfect the Virtues, as we have already seen. Consequently, we can divide the Seven (7) Gifts of the Holy Spirit as follows:


Cognitive Faculties


7 Gifts

  Speculative Intellect
     yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Deeper Insight into Divine Truths - - - - - - - - - - - yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Understanding
     yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Proper Judgment concerning Truths-of-Faith - - - yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Knowledge
     yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Judgment according to Divine Norms - - - - - - - - - yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Wisdom
  Practical Intellect
     yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Decisions regarding Human Actions - - - - - - - - - - yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Counsel
Appetitive Powers
  Volitional Appetite (the Will)
     yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) In relation to others - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Piety
  Sensitive Appetites (the Emotions)
     yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Proper use of the Irascible Emotions - - - - - - - - - yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Fortitude
     yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Proper use of Pleasure Emotions - - - - - - - - - - - - yellowdot.gif (100 bytes) Fear of the Lord


littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) Understanding: to give a, deeper Insight and Penetration of Divine Truths held by Faith, not as a Transitory Enlightenment but as a Permanent Intuition.

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) Knowledge: to Judge Rightly concerning the Truths of Faith in accordance with their Proper Causes and the Principles of Revealed Truth.

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) Wisdom: to Judge and Order all things in accordance with Divine Norms and with a Connaturality that flows from Loving Union with God.

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) Counsel: to render the individual Docile and Receptive to the Counsel of God regarding one's Actions in view of Sanctification and Salvation.

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) Piety: to give Filial Worship to God precisely as our Father and to relate with all people as children of the same Father.

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) Fortitude: to overcome Difficulties or to endure Pain and Suffering with the Strength and Power infused by God.

littlegoldcross.gif (962 bytes) Fear of the Lord: to avoid Sin and Attachment to Created Things, out of Reverence and Love of God


- End of Part IV -


Index - Supernatural Organism

Subject: Soul
Formal Principle: Sanctifying Grace
Faculties/Powers: Infused Virtues and Gifts of the Holy Spirit
Operations: Acts of the Virtues and Gifts